Health and Care

Health and care guider will give you the information you need to have Fit and Healthy. Find effective Health care Tips at This Blog.

Health and Care

February 17, 2018

Does UV radiation cause cancer?

Yes. In fact, most skin cancers are a direct result of exposure to the UV rays in sunlight. Both basal cell and squamous cell cancers (the most common types of skin cancer) tend to be found on sun-exposed parts of the body, and their occurrence is typically related to lifetime sun exposure. The risk of  melanoma, a more serious but less common type of skin cancer, is also related to sun exposure, although perhaps not as strongly. Skin cancer has also been linked to exposure to some artificial sources of UV rays.


Studies in people

Sun exposure

Basal and squamous cell skin cancer: Many observational studies have found that basal and squamous cell skin cancers are linked to certain behaviors that put people in the sun, as well as a number of markers of sun exposure, such as:

  • Spending time in the sun for recreation (including going to the beach)
  • Spending a lot of time in the sun in a swimsuit
  • Living in an area with a high amount of sun
  • Having had serious sunburns in the past (with more sunburns linked to a higher risk)
  • Having signs of sun damage to the skin, such as liver spots, actinic keratoses (rough skin patches that can be precancerous), and solar elastosis (thickened, dry, wrinkled skin caused by sun exposure) on the neck

Melanoma: Observational studies have also found links between certain behaviors and markers of sun exposure and melanoma of the skin, including:


  • Activities that lead to “intermittent sun exposure,” like sunbathing, water sports, and taking vacations in sunny places
  • Previous sunburns
  • Signs of sun damage to the skin, such as liver spots, actinic keratoses, and solar elastosis

Other cancers: Because UV radiation does not penetrate deeply into the body, it would not be expected to cause cancer in internal organs, and most research has not found such links. However, some studies have shown possible links to some other cancers, including:

  • Merkel cell carcinoma (a less common type of skin cancer)
  • Cancer of the lip
  • Some types of eye cancer, such as  melanoma of the eye and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva

Artificial sources of UV rays

Indoor tanning: Studies have found that people who use tanning beds (or booths) have a higher risk of skin cancer, including melanoma and squamous and basal cell skin cancers. The risk of melanoma is higher if the person started indoor tanning before age 30 or 35, and the risk of basal and squamous cell skin cancer is higher if indoor tanning started before age 20 or 25.

Welding and metal work: Some studies have suggested that welders and sheet metal workers might have a higher risk of melanoma of the eye.

Phototherapy: People exposed to UVA as a treatment for skin conditions such as psoriasis (as a part of PUVA therapy) have an increased risk of squamous cell skin cancers.

Treatment of skin conditions with UVB alone (not combined with PUVA) has not been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

Studies in the lab

Studies of cells

Studies of cells in lab dishes and test tubes have shown that sunlight and simulated sunlight (for example, from xenon or xenon-mercury arc lamps) can cause DNA damage (mutations).

Studies in animals

Exposure of mice, rats, and some other lab animals to sunlight and artificial sources of UV rays has been shown to lead to skin cancers. Most of these cancers have been squamous cell carcinomas. Some exposed animals have also developed cancers of the eye (affecting the cornea and conjunctiva).

No type of UV radiation has been shown to be safe – cancers have developed after exposure to UVA (alone), UVB (alone), and UVC (alone).

What expert agencies say

Several national and international agencies study different substances in the environment to determine if they can cause cancer. (A substance that causes cancer or helps cancer grow is called a carcinogen.) The American Cancer Society looks to these organizations to evaluate the risks based on evidence from laboratory, animal, and human research studies.

Based on animal and human evidence like the examples above, several expert agencies have evaluated the cancer-causing nature of UV radiation.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization (WHO). Its major goal is to identify causes of cancer. Based on the data available, IARC classifies UV radiation as “carcinogenic to humans.”

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is formed from parts of several different US government agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The NTP has classified UV radiation as “known to be a human carcinogen.”

What about tanning beds?

Some people think that getting UV rays from tanning beds is a safe way to get a tan, but this isn’t true.

IARC classifies the use of UV-emitting tanning devices as “carcinogenic to humans.” This includes sunlamps and sunbeds (tanning beds).

The NTP has stated that exposure to sunlamps or sunbeds is “known to be a human carcinogen.”

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which now refers to all UV lamps used for tanning as “sunlamps,” requires them to carry a label that states, “Attention: This sunlamp product should not be used on persons under the age of 18 years.” The FDA also requires that user instructions and sales materials directed at consumers (including catalogs, specification sheets, descriptive brochures, and webpages) carry the following statements:

  • Contraindication: This product is contraindicated for use on persons under the age of 18 years.
  • Contraindication: This product must not be used if skin lesions or open wounds are present.
  • Warning: This product should not be used on individuals who have had skin cancer or have a family history of skin cancer.
  • Warning: Persons repeatedly exposed to UV radiation should be regularly evaluated for skin cancer.
February 15, 2018

DIY Acne Gel With Essential Oils

Aloe vera is the perennial plant growing primary in the tropical part of the world. Traditionally aloe vera is often used as the potent medicine in various part of the world. It is the small herb, which can attend the height of around hundred centimeters in height. The succulent plant has weird waxy leaves that contain gel in the inner part. The gel is used for the various purposes.

Various studies have been conducted found out that aloe vera does, in fact, have several amazing properties that are effective in treating a variety of skin conditions.

Benefits of Aloe Vera Gel for Skin

  • It treats sunburn.
  • It acts as a moisturizer.
  • It treats acne.
  • It fights aging.
  • It lessens the visibility of stretch marks.

Ingredients Used & Their Benefits


  • Aloe Vera Gel –Acne is the skin is marked by the inflamed and infection in the sebaceous gland leading to reddish in the skin. The antibacterial quality of the acne is beneficial in the soothing the occurrence of the acne.
  • Tea Tree Essential Oil – Tea tree essential oil is renowned for its powerful, purifying, antibacterial properties. It is a popular remedy for acne and pimples. It is good for acne because it has potent disinfectant properties that fight off acne-causing bacteria. The astringent properties in tea tree tighten large pores and reduce excess oils on the skin.
  • Juniper Berry Essential Oil – This amazing has natural antibacterial and antimicrobial abilities, making it one of the most popular natural remedies for fighting skin irritations and infections. It is one of the most favored natural remedies for skin problems especially acne. It also reduces stretch marks and helps other skin conditions that occur because of hormonal imbalance
  • Lavender Essential Oil – Lavender essential oil also has antibacterial properties and can be used directly on the skin to fight acne. It’s useful for reducing acne inflammation and as well as fading away acne scars.
  • Clary Sage Essential Oil – Clary sage works wonders in healing hormonal acne.  Clary sage contains a particular chemical called linalyl acetate which works to reduce inflammation and prevents acne scarring.  It balances skin sebum and promotes clear skin. This oil also regulates the oil production of the skin, which can help future acne from forming.

DIY Acne Gel


What you need:

  • ½ cup aloe vera gel
  • 10 drops tea tree essential oil
  • 7 drops lavender essential oil
  • 10 drops juniper berry essential oil
  • 7 drops clary sage essential oil
  • 4 oz amber glass jar for storage
  • Small bowl
  • Whisk

Directions:

  • In a medium-sized bowl, add ½ cup aloe vera gel.
  • Add drops of all the essential oils required
  • Mix by whisking the contents to evenly distribute the essential oils into the aloe gel.
  • Transfer your DIY Acne Gel into a jar. (Remember to use an amber colour or blue jar; because exposure to light can make your gel spoil faster. Also, glass storage containers are the best for storing any essential oil products)
  • Store in a cool dry place.
  • To use, get a dime-sized amount on your clean palm and apply on your freshly washed damp face.
  • Let it dry

This DIY acne gel feels incredibly good on the skin. Please try it out and let me know how it goes!
February 15, 2018

7 Tips For How To Lose Weight And Keep It Off Permanently

Losing weight is one thing - but losing weight and keeping it off permanently is another. Weight loss can be quite demanding at times especially if you are not a fitness freak. It requires you to always be conscious of your diet and your waistline. Seemingly harmless choices such as eating a bag of fries or ice cream could take you right back to the start. So, here are 7 tips for how to lose weight and keep it off permanently.


1. Drink more water

Drinking water comes with many benefits to your body. It aids in digestion, keeps your skin glowing and keeps you hydrated. However, in this context, water is responsible for helping to boost your metabolism. This leads to more fat burning in the body.

2. Hit the ground running

Running is one of the best physical exercises you can engage in. This is why most athletes always go for a morning run every day during training. Running is a very good mix of both aerobics and strength training and it requires no gym equipment to do. Therefore, if you want to lose weight and keep it off permanently, it's time you hit the ground running. The other alternative to running is swimming since it also involves all body muscles. Brisk walking is an option here too.

3. Watch your carbs

Losing weight is all about balancing the math between the amount of calories you consume and the number of calories you use. The trick here is to make sure that you use more calories than you consume. Keeping a food diary could be a good way to track everything that you consume and work out what your daily calorie intake actually is.

4. Combine aerobics with strength training

Engaging in aerobics is the fastest way to lose weight. However, you also need to combine it with strength training so as to maximize the benefits. Aerobics are good cardio workouts and help keep your body in shape. But after losing weight fast, you are bound to have some loose skin, which is why it is also important to combine it with strength training to ensure good toning.

5. Never skip breakfast

It is common for people to wake up a few minutes late after pressing the snooze button three times. Once they realize that they've run out of time, they get dressed in a hurry and leave for work without even thinking about breakfast. Regularly skipping breakfast can be quite unforgiving. This is because it will leave you feeling hungry for the rest of the day and you will likely end up eating more - which eventually translates to more calories. Skipping breakfast also encourages other unhealthy eating habits such as unhealthy snacking between meals. If you want to lose weight and keep it off permanently, make sure you eat a full healthy breakfast every day.

6. Avoid added sugars

Whether it is labelled as honey, sweeteners or sugar, added sugars are your worst enemy - especially if it is refined. They eventually translate to excess carbs that are stored in your belly. Try to avoid or minimize your sugar consumption to keep off the weight you have lost so far.

7. Get a personal trainer

This tip is not that necessary but a personal trainer can come in really handy especially when you need to lose weight fast. Whether it is an upcoming competition or you just want to fit in that wedding dress next month, a personal trainer can help you achieve your fitness goals. All you have to do is set realistic goals and they will be there to help you lose weight and keep it off permanently in time for the upcoming anniversary or special event.

Weight loss is a journey that requires commitment. We've all heard of people who hit the gym for years to gain a six-pack which they later lost in just under a month! Weight loss requires discipline. Train your body to say no to unhealthy foods and unhealthy eating habits. Learn to suppress those cravings for a candy bar every afternoon. Create a training schedule and stick to it. Don't go to the gym for a day and then skip for two weeks then come back for another two days and expect results. Stay focused on your fitness goals, and this is how to lose weight and keep it off permanently!
February 14, 2018

Breast Cancer Risk Factors You Cannot Change

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease, such as breast cancer. But having a risk factor, or even many, does not mean that you are sure to get the disease.

Some risk factors for breast cancer are things you cannot change, such as being a woman, getting older, and having certain gene changes. These make your risk of breast cancer higher.

Being a woman

Simply being a woman is the main risk factor for breast cancer. Men can get breast cancer, too, but this disease is about 100 times more common in women than in men.

Getting older

As you get older, your risk of breast cancer goes up. Most breast cancers are found in women age 55 and older.

Certain inherited genes

About 5% to 10% of breast cancer cases are thought to be hereditary, meaning that they result directly from gene defects (called mutations) passed on from a parent.

BRCA1 and BRCA2: The most common cause of hereditary breast cancer is an inherited mutation in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene. In normal cells, these genes help make proteins that repair damaged DNA. Mutated versions of these genes can lead to abnormal cell growth, which can lead to cancer.

  • If you have inherited a mutated copy of either gene from a parent, you have a higher risk of breast cancer.
  • On average, a woman with a BRCA1 or BRCA2 gene mutation has about a 7 in 10 chance of getting breast cancer by age 80. This risk is also affected by how many other family members have had breast cancer. (It goes up if more family members are affected.)  
  • Women with one of these mutations are more likely to be diagnosed with breast cancer at a younger age, as well as to have cancer in both breasts. They also have a higher risk of developing some other cancers, mainly ovarian cancer.
  • In the United States, BRCA mutations are more common in Jewish people of Ashkenazi (Eastern Europe) origin than in other racial and ethnic groups, but anyone can have them.
Changes in other genes: Other gene mutations can also lead to inherited breast cancers. These gene mutations are much less common, and most of them do not increase the risk of breast cancer as much as the BRCA genes.

  • ATM: The ATM gene normally helps repair damaged DNA (or helps kill the cell if the damaged can't be fixed). Inheriting 2 abnormal copies of this gene causes the disease ataxia-telangiectasia. Inheriting one abnormal copy of this gene has been linked to a high rate of breast cancer in some families.
  • TP53: The TP53 gene gives instructions for making a protein called p53 that helps stop the growth of abnormal cells. Inherited mutations of this gene cause Li-Fraumeni syndrome. People with this syndrome have an increased risk of breast cancer, as well as some other cancers such as leukemia, brain tumors, and sarcomas (cancers of bones or connective tissue). This mutation is a rare cause of breast cancer.
  • CHEK2: The CHEK2 gene is another gene that normally helps with DNA repair. A CHEK2 mutation can increase breast cancer risk about 2-fold.
  • PTEN: The PTEN gene normally helps regulate cell growth. Inherited mutations in this gene can cause Cowden syndrome, a rare disorder that puts people at higher risk for both non-cancer and cancer tumors in the breasts, as well as growths in the digestive tract, thyroid, uterus, and ovaries.
  • CDH1: Inherited mutations in this gene cause hereditary diffuse gastric cancer, a syndrome in which people develop a rare type of stomach cancer. Women with mutations in this gene also have an increased risk of invasive lobular breast cancer.
  • STK11: Defects in this gene can lead to Peutz-Jeghers syndrome. People affected with this disorder have pigmented spots on their lips and in their mouths, polyps (abnormal growths) in the urinary and digestive tracts, and a higher risk of many types of cancer, including breast cancer.
  • PALB2: The PALB2 gene makes a protein that interacts with the protein made by the BRCA2 gene. Mutations in this gene can lead to a higher risk of breast cancer.
Mutations in several other genes have also been linked to breast cancer, but these account for only a small number of cases.

Genetic testing: Genetic testing can be done to look for mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes (or less commonly in other genes such as PTEN or TP53). While testing can be helpful in some cases, not every woman needs to be tested, and the pros and cons need to be considered carefully.

If you’re thinking about genetic testing, it’s strongly recommended that you first talk to a genetic counselor, nurse, or doctor who can explain these tests. It’s very important to understand what genetic testing can and can’t tell you, and to carefully weigh the benefits and risks of genetic testing before these tests are done. Testing costs a lot and might not be covered by some health insurance plans.

Having a family history of breast cancer

It’s important to note that most women (about 8 out of 10) who get breast cancer do not have a family history of the disease. But women who have close blood relatives with breast cancer have a higher risk:

  • Having a first-degree relative (mother, sister, or daughter) with breast cancer almost doubles a woman’s risk. Having 2 first-degree relatives increases her risk about 3-fold.
  • Women with a father or brother who have had breast cancer also have a higher risk of breast cancer.
Overall, less than 15% of women with breast cancer have a family member with this disease.

Having a personal history of breast cancer




A woman with cancer in one breast has a higher risk of developing a new cancer in the other breast or in another part of the same breast. (This is different from a recurrence or return of the first cancer.) Although this risk is low overall, it's even higher for younger women with breast cancer.

Your race and ethnicity

Overall, white women are slightly more likely to develop breast cancer than African-American women. But in women under age 45, breast cancer is more common in African-American women. African-American women are also more likely to die from breast cancer at any age. Asian, Hispanic, and Native American women have a lower risk of developing and dying from breast cancer.

Having dense breast tissue

Breasts are made up of fatty tissue, fibrous tissue, and glandular tissue. Someone is said to have dense breasts (on a mammogram) when they have more glandular and fibrous tissue and less fatty tissue. Women with dense breasts on mammogram have a risk of breast cancer that is about 1.5 to 2 times that of women with average breast density. Unfortunately, dense breast tissue can also make it harder to see cancers on mammograms.

A number of factors can affect breast density, such as age, menopausal status, the use of certain drugs (including menopausal hormone therapy), pregnancy, and genetics.

Certain benign breast conditions

Women diagnosed with certain benign (non-cancer) breast conditions may have a higher risk of breast cancer. Some of these conditions are more closely linked to breast cancer risk than others. Doctors often divide benign breast conditions into 3 groups, depending on how they affect this risk.

Non-proliferative lesions: These conditions don’t seem to affect breast cancer risk, or if they do, the increase in risk is very small. They include:

  • Fibrosis and/or simple cysts (sometimes called fibrocystic changes or disease)
  • Mild hyperplasia
  • Adenosis (non-sclerosing)
  • Phyllodes tumor (benign)
  • A single papilloma
  • Fat necrosis
  • Duct ectasia
  • Periductal fibrosis
  • Squamous and apocrine metaplasia
  • Epithelial-related calcifications
  • Other tumors (lipoma, hamartoma, hemangioma, neurofibroma, adenomyoepithelioma)

Mastitis (infection of the breast) is not a tumor and does not increase the risk of breast cancer.

Proliferative lesions without atypia (cell abnormalities): In these conditions there’s excessive growth of cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast, but the cells don't look very abnormal. These conditions seem to raise a woman’s risk of breast cancer slightly. They include:
  • Usual ductal hyperplasia (without atypia)
  • Fibroadenoma
  • Sclerosing adenosis
  • Several papillomas (called papillomatosis)
  • Radial scar

Proliferative lesions with atypia: In these conditions, the cells in the ducts or lobules of the breast tissue grow excessively, and some of them no longer look normal. These types of lesions include:
  • Atypical ductal hyperplasia (ADH)
  • Atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH)

Breast cancer risk is about 4 to 5 times higher than normal in women with these changes. If a woman also has a family history of breast cancer and either hyperplasia or atypical hyperplasia, she has an even higher risk of breast cancer.

Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)

In LCIS, cells that look like cancer cells are growing in the lobules of the milk-producing glands of the breast, but they are not growing through the wall of the lobules. LCIS is also called lobular neoplasia. It’s sometimes grouped with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) as a non-invasive breast cancer, but it differs from DCIS in that it doesn’t seem to become invasive cancer if it isn’t treated.

Women with LCIS have a much higher risk of developing cancer in either breast.

Starting menstruation (periods) early

Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they started menstruating early (especially before age 12) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be due to a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Going through menopause after age 55

Women who have had more menstrual cycles because they went through menopause later (after age 55) have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer. The increase in risk may be because they have a longer lifetime exposure to the hormones estrogen and progesterone.

Having radiation to your chest

Women who were treated with radiation therapy to the chest for another cancer (such as Hodgkin disease or non-Hodgkin lymphoma) when they were younger have a significantly higher risk for breast cancer. This varies with the patient’s age when they got radiation. The risk is highest if you had radiation as a teen or young adult, when your breasts were still developing. Radiation treatment after age 40 does not seem to increase breast cancer risk.

Exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES)

From the 1940s through the early 1970s some pregnant women were given an estrogen-like drug called DES because it was thought to lower their chances of losing the baby (miscarriage). These women have a slightly increased risk of developing breast cancer. Women whose mothers took DES during pregnancy may also have a slightly higher risk of breast cancer.
February 12, 2018

Why Good Nutrition Is an Essential Part of Your Anti-Aging Skincare Routine


If you're interested in keeping your skin young and beautiful, you need to establish a good skin care routine now, no matter your age. While a skincare routine probably brings to mind cleansers, clarifiers, exfoliants and anti-aging creams, good eating habits should be part of your skincare routine as well. Good nutrition is essential to healthy skin, since it is the body's largest organ. Here is a closer look at how you can establish a healthy diet as part of your anti-aging game plan.


Bright Colored, Raw Vegetables and Fruits

First, you'll want to start making sure you eat plenty of brightly colored, raw vegetables and fruits for great anti-aging results. Going with vegetables and fruits that are brightly colored means you'll get more of the natural antioxidants your body needs to fight free radicals. Cooking vegetables and fruits can destroy or change many of the amino acids, nutrients and vitamins that are in these foods, so eating them raw is a great choice. Getting plenty of bright, raw veggies and fruits also helps to firm skin, smooth it and stabilize the presence of vitamins within the skin tissue. Adding fruits and veggies that have vitamin A in them can help to fight off acne. If you're dealing with blemishes or oily skin, apples are a great anti-aging nutrition choice, since they offer vitamin C, calcium, magnesium and copper.

Avoid High Sugar Foods

If you're working to establish a good anti-aging skincare routine, another nutrition tip is to avoid eating high sugar foods. Foods high in sugar can cause obesity and blood sugar problems, such as diabetes. Highly processed foods that contain a lot of sugar can also ruin your anti-aging routine by causing blotchy skin, wrinkles, sagging and a loss of radiance. Limit the amount of cereals, breads, sugars and other simple carbs to help fight the signs of aging.

Healthy Fats Improve Skin

Healthy fats should be added to your anti-aging skincare routine. While you want to avoid eating bad fats, it is important to ensure you eat good fats as a part of the body. Taking in those healthy fats helps to keep the skin supple, smooth and moist. Healthy fats also are essential for helping with the transport and absorption of fat-soluble vitamins, such as vitamin K, vitamin D, vitamin E and vitamin A, which are all important for anti-aging. You can find healthy fats in seeds, nuts, tuna, flax seeds, sardines, olive oil and avocados.

Build Healthy Skin Cells with Protein

As you work to add good nutrition to your anti-aging routine, you need to focus on getting enough healthy protein, since it is essential for building healthy skin cells. Complete proteins can be found in dairy, fish, eggs, poultry and beef. Those who prefer a vegetarian diet can find proteins in wheat, beans, lentils, soy and dried grains.

Hydrate for Beautiful Skin

Of course, you can't afford to forget proper hydration as a part of your anti-aging plan. Getting plenty of water each day is important for proper food digestion and the absorption of nutrients. The skin is made up of about 70% water, which means you have to continually hydrate to avoid skin that is flaky and dry.

What you put into your body is definitely going to affect your skin, which is why good nutrition must be a part of your comprehensive anti-aging skin routine. Keep this advice in mind as you combine a good diet with quality anti-aging products for beautiful skin that won't give your age away.
February 12, 2018

Dark Pigmentation on the Face Can Be Unattractive

As with many things cosmetic, a lot of us are less than thrilled with our skin color. We would like to be darker; we would like to be lighter; we would like smoother, less blotchy skin. But it is what it is. The color of your skin is predetermined and you can't change your basic biologic color. Whether you are very fair or very dark, is determined by your pigmentation which comes from the amount of melanin in your skin cells.


Melanocytes are the elements within your skin cells that produce melanin. The amount of melanin in your skin cells determines how light or dark your skin will be. Hyperpigmentation indicates too much melanin, and hypopigmentation indicates too little melanin. When the amount of melanin gets out of balance we develop pigmentation disorders. One of these conditions is Melasma which is an excessive pigmentation disorder often brought on by certain hormonal changes. It manifests itself as dark blotchy spots on the face and is especially common in young white women. We know it by its common name, "the mask of pregnancy." Melasma can also be a side effect of taking higher dose birth control pills. It is generally considered harmless and will fade with time.

For people with dark skin, an imbalance in melanin may result in the development of white blotches. Some people develop a severe condition called Vitiligo. This loss of pigment disorder can occur in any race, but it is particularly distressing for those with dark skin. Many of us suffer from some degree of pigmentation disorder, generally brought on by excessive sun exposure. The results of excessive pigmentation are dark spots on the skin, often referred to as "liver spots," or "age spots." Once again, your first line of defense is protection from those harmful UVA and UVB sun rays.

There are many over the counter products that can lighten and smooth out the appearance of your skin. Check the ingredients of these products being careful to avoid those containing bleach, and especially hydroquinone which may be carcinogenic. Look instead for products that contain Alpha Arbutin which is a new skin lightening ingredient that provides gentle skin lightening without any dangerous side effects. Ageless Derma Anti Aging Skin Brightener contains Alpha Arbutin and can provide gentle and safe skin lightening.

Exfoliating is another technique used to lessen the appearance of dark spots on the skin. Exfoliating can remove the first dead layer of pigmented cells allowing more of your moisturizer to penetrate your skin. The result will be lighter spots, and fresher, silkier looking skin. Many women feel that exfoliating twice a week keeps their skin looking healthy, but older women with dryer skin need to be wary of too much "scrubbing."

In really stubborn cases, you might consider microdermabrasion or laser surgery. These are more involved procedures done by professionals and with considerable cost. They are generally effective with little discomfort or recovery time. Whatever the degree of your pigmentation disorder, there is help available, starting first with prevention. The dark spots on the skin that you see today are likely the result of sun exposure you were subject to ten or more years ago. So keep putting on that sun screen to minimize damage in the future.

February 11, 2018

What Is Breast Cancer?


Breast cancer starts when cells in the breast begin to grow out of control. These cells usually form a tumor that can often be seen on an x-ray or felt as a lump. The tumor is malignant (cancer) if the cells can grow into (invade) surrounding tissues or spread (metastasize) to distant areas of the body. Breast cancer occurs almost entirely in women, but men can get breast cancer, too.

Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer and can spread to other areas. To learn more about cancer and how all cancers start and spread, see Cancer Basics.

Where breast cancer starts

Breast cancers can start from different parts of the breast. Most breast cancers begin in the ducts that carry milk to the nipple (ductal cancers). Some start in the glands that make breast milk (lobular cancers). There are also other types of breast cancer that are less common.

A small number of cancers start in other tissues in the breast. These cancers are called sarcomas and lymphomas and are not really thought of as breast cancers.

Although many types of breast cancer can cause a lump in the breast, not all do.  Many breast cancers are found on screening mammograms which can detect cancers at an earlier stage, often before they can be felt, and before symptoms develop. There are other symptoms of breast cancer you should watch for and report to a health care provider.

It’s also important to understand that most breast lumps are benign and not cancer (malignant). Non-cancerous breast tumors are abnormal growths, but they do not spread outside of the breast and they are not life threatening. But some benign breast lumps can increase a woman's risk of getting breast cancer. Any breast lump or change needs to be checked by a health care professional to determine if it is benign or malignant (cancer) and if it might affect your future cancer risk.

How breast cancer spreads

Breast cancer can spread when the cancer cells get into the blood or lymph system and are carried to other parts of the body.

The lymph system is a network of lymph (or lymphatic) vessels found throughout the body that connects lymph nodes (small bean-shaped collections of immune system cells). The clear fluid inside the lymph vessels, called lymph, contains tissue by-products and waste material, as well as immune system cells. The lymph vessels carry lymph fluid away from the breast. In the case of breast cancer, cancer cells can enter those lymph vessels and start to grow in lymph nodes. Most of the lymph vessels of the breast drain into:
  • Lymph nodes under the arm (axillary nodes)
  • Lymph nodes around the collar bone (supraclavicular [above the collar bone] and infraclavicular [below the collar bone] lymph nodes)
  • Lymph nodes inside the chest near the breast bone (internal mammary lymph nodes)

If cancer cells have spread to your lymph nodes, there is a higher chance that the cells could have traveled through the lymph system and spread (metastasized) to other parts of your body. The more lymph nodes with breast cancer cells, the more likely it is that the cancer may be found in other organs. Because of this, finding cancer in one or more lymph nodes often affects your treatment plan. Usually, you will need surgery to remove one or more lymph nodes to know whether the cancer has spread.

Still, not all women with cancer cells in their lymph nodes develop metastases, and some women with no cancer cells in their lymph nodes develop metastases later.
February 11, 2018

How Is Malignant Mesothelioma Diagnosed?

Mesothelioma is most often diagnosed after a person goes to a doctor because of symptoms they are having. If there is a reason to suspect you might have mesothelioma, your doctor will examine you and use one or more tests to find out. Symptoms might suggest that the problem could be mesothelioma, but tests will be needed to confirm the diagnosis.

Medical history and physical exam

If you have any signs or symptoms that suggest you might have mesothelioma, your doctor will want to get your medical history to learn about your symptoms and possible risk factors, especially asbestos exposure.

A physical exam can provide information about possible signs of mesothelioma and other health problems. Pleural mesothelioma can cause fluid to build up around the lungs in the chest (called a pleural effusion). In cases of peritoneal mesothelioma, fluid can build up in the abdomen (called ascites). In pericardial mesothelioma, fluid builds up in the sac around the heart (called a pericardial effusion). Rarely, mesothelioma can develop in the groin and look like a hernia. All of these might be found during a physical exam, such as when the doctor listens to these areas with a stethoscope or taps on the chest or abdomen.

If mesothelioma is a possibility, tests will be needed to make sure. These might include imaging tests, blood tests, and other procedures.

Imaging tests

Imaging tests use x-rays, radioactive particles, sound waves, or magnetic fields to create pictures of the inside of your body. Imaging tests might be done for a number of reasons, such as:


  • To look at suspicious areas that might be cancer
  • To learn how far cancer has spread
  • To help determine if treatment is working

People thought to have mesothelioma may have one or more of these tests.

Chest x-ray

This is often the first test done if someone has symptoms such as a constant cough or shortness of breath. Findings that might suggest mesothelioma include an abnormal thickening of the pleura, calcium deposits on the pleura, fluid in the space between the lungs and the chest wall, or changes in the lungs themselves as a result of asbestos exposure.

Computed tomography (CT) scan

The CT scan uses x-rays to make detailed cross-sectional images of your body. Instead of taking one picture, like a regular x-ray, a CT scanner takes many pictures as it rotates around you while you are lying on a narrow table. A computer then combines these into images of slices of the body.

CT scans are often used to help look for mesothelioma and to determine the exact location of the cancer. They can also help determine the stage (extent) of the cancer. For example, they can show if the cancer has spread to other organs. This can help determine if surgery might be a treatment option. Finally, CT scans can also be used to learn if treatment such as chemotherapy is shrinking or slowing the growth of the cancer.

A CT scanner has been described as a large donut, with a narrow table that slides in and out of the middle opening. You will need to lie still on the table while the scan is being done. CT scans take longer than regular x-rays, and you might feel a bit confined by the ring while the pictures are being taken.

Before the test, you might have to drink a liquid called oral contrast. This helps outline the intestine so that certain areas are not mistaken for tumors. You might also need an IV (intravenous) line through which a different kind of contrast is injected. This helps better outline structures in your body. The injection can cause some flushing (redness and warm feeling). Some people are allergic and get hives or, rarely, more serious reactions like trouble breathing and low blood pressure. Be sure to tell the doctor if you have any allergies (especially to iodine or shellfish) or have ever had a reaction to any contrast material used for x-rays.

Echocardiogram

This test uses sound waves to look at the heart. It may be done if your doctor suspects that you have fluid around your heart (a pericardial effusion). This test can also tell how well the heart is working. For the most common version of this test, you lie on a table while a technician moves an instrument called a transducer over the skin on your chest. A gel is often put on the skin first.

Positron emission tomography (PET) scan

For a PET scan, a radioactive substance (usually a type of sugar related to glucose, known as FDG) is injected into the blood. The amount of radioactivity used is very low. Because cancer cells grow quickly, they absorb more of the sugar than most other cells. After waiting about an hour, you lie on a table in the PET scanner for about 30 minutes while a special camera creates a picture of areas of radioactivity in the body.

The picture from a PET scan is not as detailed as a CT or MRI scan, but it can provide helpful information about whether abnormal areas seen on these tests are likely to be cancerous or not. For example, it can give the doctor a better idea of whether a thickening of the pleura or peritoneum seen on a CT scan is more likely cancer or merely scar tissue. If you have been diagnosed with mesothelioma, your doctor may use this test to see if the cancer has spread to lymph nodes or other parts of the body. A PET scan can also be useful if your doctor thinks the cancer may have spread but doesn’t know where.

Some machines can do both a PET and CT scan at the same time (PET/CT scan). This lets the doctor compare areas of higher radioactivity on the PET scan with the more detailed appearance of that area on the CT.

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan

Like CT scans, MRI scans make detailed images of the body’s soft tissues. But MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets instead of x-rays. A contrast material called gadolinium is often injected into a vein before the scan to better show details. This contrast is different than the one used for CT scans, so being allergic to one doesn’t mean you are allergic to the other.

MRI scans can sometimes help show the exact location and extent of a tumor since they provide very detailed images of soft tissues. For mesotheliomas, they may be useful in looking at the diaphragm (the thin band of muscle below the lungs that helps us breathe), a possible site of cancer spread.

MRI scans take longer than CT scans – often up to an hour. You may have to lie inside a narrow tube, which can upset people with a fear of enclosed spaces. Special, more open MRI machines may be an option in some cases. The MRI machine makes buzzing and clicking noises that you might find disturbing. Some places will give you earplugs to help block this out.

Blood tests

Blood levels of certain substances are often higher in people with mesothelioma:
  • Osteopontin
  • Soluble mesothelin-related peptides (SMRPs), detected with the MesoMark® test

Mesothelioma can’t be diagnosed with these blood tests alone, but high levels of these substances can make the diagnosis more likely. These tests are not routinely used in most doctors’ offices because of their limited value.

Tests of fluid and tissue samples

Symptoms and test results may strongly suggest that a person has mesothelioma, but the actual diagnosis is made by removing cells from an abnormal area and looking at them under a microscope. This is known as a biopsy. It can be done in different ways, depending on the situation.

Removing fluid for testing

If there is a buildup of fluid in part of the body that might be due to mesothelioma, a sample of this fluid can be removed by inserting a thin, hollow needle through the skin and into the fluid. Numbing medicine is used on the skin before the needle is inserted. This may be done in a doctor’s office or in the hospital. Sometimes ultrasound (or an echocardiogram) is used to guide the needle. These tests use sound waves to see inside the body.

This procedure has different names depending on where the fluid is:

  • Thoracentesis removes fluid from the chest.
  • Paracentesis removes fluid from the abdomen.
  • Pericardiocentesis removes fluid from the sac around the heart.

The fluid is then tested for its chemical makeup and is looked at under a microscope to see if it contains cancer cells. If cancer cells are found, special tests might be done to see if the cancer is a mesothelioma, a lung cancer, or another type of cancer.

Even if no cancer cells are found in the fluid, a person might still have cancer. In many cases, doctors need to get an actual sample of the mesothelium (the pleura, peritoneum, or pericardium) to determine if a person has mesothelioma.

Needle biopsies

Suspected tumors in the chest are sometimes sampled by needle biopsy. A long, hollow needle is passed through the skin in the chest between the ribs and into the pleura. Imaging tests such as CT scans are used to guide the needle into the tumor so that small samples can be removed to be looked at under the microscope. This is often done using just numbing medicine.

Needle biopsy can also be used to get samples of the lymph nodes in the space between the lungs to see if the cancer has spread there (see “Endobronchial ultrasound needle biopsy”).

Needle biopsies do not require a surgical incision or overnight hospital stay. But the downside is that sometimes the samples removed are not big enough to make an accurate diagnosis. This is especially true for mesothelioma. A more invasive biopsy method may be needed.

There is a slight chance that the needle could put a small hole in the lung during the biopsy. This can cause air to build up in the space between the lung and the chest wall (known as a pneumothorax). A small pneumothorax might not cause any symptoms. It may only be seen on an x-ray done after the biopsy, and it will often go away on its own. But a larger pneumothorax can make part of a lung collapse and might need to be treated. The treatment is placement of a small tube (a catheter) through the skin and into the space between the lungs. The tube is used to suck the air out in order to re-expand the lung and is left in place for a short time.

Endoscopic biopsies

Endoscopic biopsy is commonly used to diagnose mesothelioma. An endoscope is a thin, tube-like instrument used to look inside the body. It has a light and a lens (or tiny video camera) on the end for viewing and often has a tool to remove tissue samples. Endoscopes have different names depending on the part of the body where they’re used.

Thoracoscopy: This procedure uses an endoscope called a thoracoscope to look at areas inside the chest. It can be used to look at the pleura and take tissue samples for biopsies.

Thoracoscopy is done in the operating room while you are under general anesthesia (in a deep sleep). The doctor inserts the thoracoscope through one or more small cuts made in the chest wall to look at the space between the lungs and the chest wall. This lets the doctor see possible areas of cancer and remove small pieces of tissue to look at under the microscope. The doctor can also sample lymph nodes and fluid and see if a tumor is growing into nearby tissues or organs.

Thoracoscopy can also be used as part of a procedure to keep fluid from building up in the chest. This is called pleurodesis and is discussed in Palliative Procedures Used for Malignant Mesothelioma.

Laparoscopy: For this test, the doctor uses an endoscope called a laparoscope to look inside the abdomen and biopsy any peritoneal tumors. This is done in the operating room while you are under general anesthesia (in a deep sleep). The laparoscope is inserted into the abdomen through small cuts on the front of the abdomen.

Mediastinoscopy: If imaging tests such as a CT scan suggest that the cancer might have spread to the lymph nodes between the lungs, the doctor may want to sample some of them to see if they really contain cancer. The area between the lungs is called the mediastinum, and looking at it with an endoscope is called mediastinoscopy. This is done in an operating room while you are under general anesthesia (in a deep sleep).

A small cut is made in the front of the neck above the breastbone (sternum) and a thin, hollow, lighted tube (called a mediastinoscope) is inserted behind the sternum. Special instruments can be passed through this tube to take tissue samples from the lymph nodes along the windpipe and the major bronchial tube areas.

Lung cancers often spread to lymph nodes, but mesotheliomas do this less often. Testing the lymph nodes can help show whether a cancer is still localized or if it has started to spread, which might affect treatment options. It can also sometimes help tell lung cancers from mesotheliomas.Patients with mesothelioma don’t need to have bronchoscopy to see if tumors are in their airways (because that isn’t where tumors from mesothelioma are found). Instead, bronchoscopy may be used to biopsy lymph nodes near the lungs (instead of using mediastinoscopy).

Endobronchial ultrasound needle biopsy: For this test, a bronchoscope (a long, thin, flexible, fiber-optic tube) with an ultrasound device at its tip is passed down the throat and into the windpipe. The ultrasound lets the doctor see the nearby lymph nodes. A hollow needle is then passed down the bronchoscope and through the airway wall into the nodes to take biopsy samples. This procedure may be done with either general anesthesia (where you are asleep), or with numbing medicine (local anesthesia) and light sedation.

Open surgical biopsy

Sometimes, endoscopic biopsies aren’t enough to make a diagnosis, so more invasive procedures are needed. By making an incision in the chest (thoracotomy) or an incision in the abdomen (laparotomy) the surgeon can remove a larger sample of tumor or, sometimes, remove the entire tumor.

Testing the samples in the lab

No matter how they’re obtained, all biopsy and fluid samples are sent to the pathology lab. There, a doctor will look at them under a microscope and test them to find out if they contain cancer cells (and if so, what type of cancer it is).

It’s often hard to diagnose mesothelioma by looking at cells from fluid samples. It can even be hard to diagnose mesothelioma with tissue from small needle biopsies. Under the microscope, mesothelioma can often look like other types of cancer. For example, pleural mesothelioma can resemble some types of lung cancer, and peritoneal mesothelioma in women may look like some cancers of the ovaries.

For this reason, special lab tests are often done to help tell mesothelioma from some other cancers. To learn about some of the tests that might be done on tissue samples, see Testing Biopsy and Cytology Specimens for Cancer.

If mesothelioma is diagnosed, the doctor will also determine what type of mesothelioma it is, based on the patterns of cells seen in the microscope. Most mesotheliomas are classified as either epithelioid, sarcomatoid, or mixed/biphasic.

Pulmonary function tests

If mesothelioma has been diagnosed, pulmonary function tests (PFTs) may be done to see how well your lungs are working. This is especially important if surgery might be an option to treat the cancer. Surgery often requires removing part or all of a lung, so it’s important to know how well the lungs are working to start with. These tests can give the surgeon an idea of whether surgery may be an option, and if so, how much lung can safely be removed safely.

There are a few different types of PFTs, but they all basically have you breathe in and out through a tube connected to a machine that measures your lung function.
February 11, 2018

Signs and Symptoms of Mesothelioma

Many of the early symptoms of mesothelioma are more likely to be caused by other conditions, so at first people may ignore them or mistake them for common, minor ailments. Most people with mesothelioma have symptoms for at least a few months before they are diagnosed.



Symptoms of pleural mesothelioma (mesothelioma of the chest) can include:

  • Pain in the side of the chest or lower back
  • Shortness of breath
  • Cough
  • Fever
  • Excessive sweating
  • Fatigue
  • Weight loss (without trying)
  • Trouble swallowing (feeling like food gets stuck)
  • Hoarseness
  • Swelling of the face and arms

Symptoms of peritoneal mesothelioma can include:

  • Abdominal (belly) pain
  • Swelling or fluid in the abdomen
  • Weight loss (without trying)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Constipation

These symptoms can be caused by mesothelioma, but more often they are caused by other conditions. Still, if you have any of these problems (especially if you have been exposed to asbestos), it’s important to see your doctor right away so the cause can be found and treated, if needed.
February 09, 2018

What’s New in Malignant Mesothelioma Research and Treatment?



There is always research going on in the area of mesothelioma. Scientists are looking for better ways to prevent, diagnose, and treat mesothelioma. Despite recent progress, much remains to be learned about the best way to treat these cancers.

Causes and prevention

Some research is focused on learning exactly how asbestos changes mesothelial cells and their DNA to cause these cancers. Understanding how these fibers produce cancer might help us develop ways to prevent those changes.

The role of asbestos in increasing the risk of mesothelioma is a definite public health concern. Researchers are learning more about which asbestos fibers can cause cancer, how they cause it, and what levels of exposure might be considered safe. Now that the dangers of asbestos are known, we can limit or stop exposure in homes, public buildings, and the workplace. Unfortunately, regulations protecting workers from asbestos exposure are much less stringent in some countries than in others.

Research is also under way to clarify the role (if any) of SV40, a virus that has been linked to mesothelioma in some studies.

Treatment

Mesothelioma remains a difficult cancer to treat, and doctors are constantly trying to improve on current approaches. The exact roles of surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy in the treatment of mesothelioma are still being studied. Combinations of these treatments are now being tested and may provide the most promising option for some patients. Newer types of treatment now being studied may give patients and their doctors even more options.

Chemotherapy

Some chemotherapy drugs can shrink or slow the growth of mesotheliomas, but in most cases the effects last for a limited time. Studies are underway to test newer chemotherapy drugs.

Photodynamic therapy

Another technique now being studied is photodynamic therapy (PDT). For this treatment, a light-activated drug is injected into a vein. The drug spreads throughout the body and tends to collect in cancer cells. A few days later (usually in the operating room, just after surgery), a special red light on the end of a tube is placed into the chest. The light causes a chemical change that activates the drug and kills the cancer cells. Since the drug is only active in the areas exposed to the special light, this approach might cause fewer side effects than using drugs that spread throughout the body. Several clinical trials are now studying the use of PDT for mesothelioma. To find out more about PDT, see Photodynamic Therapy.

Targeted drugs

In general, chemo drugs have a limited effect against mesothelioma. As researchers have learned more about the changes in cells that cause cancer, they have developed newer drugs that target these changes. Targeted drugs work differently from standard chemo drugs. They sometimes work when chemo drugs don’t, and they often have different (and less severe) side effects.

Sunitinib (Sutent) is an example of a targeted drug that has shown promise in some studies.

Other new drugs have different targets. For example, some new drugs target mesothelin, a protein found in high levels in mesothelioma cells. To learn more about targeted therapy drugs, see Targeted Therapy.

Other newer forms of treatment

Because standard treatments often have limited usefulness against mesothelioma, researchers are studying other new types of treatment as well.

Gene therapy: A newer type of treatment being tested on mesothelioma is gene therapy, which attempts to add new genes to cancer cells to make them easier to kill. One approach to gene therapy uses special viruses that have been modified in the lab. The virus is injected into the pleural space and infects the mesothelioma cells. When this infection occurs, the virus injects the desired gene into the cells. In one version of this approach, the virus carries a gene that helps turn on the immune system to attack the cancer cells. Early studies of this approach have found it may shrink or slow the growth of mesothelioma in some people, but more research is needed to confirm this.

Immunotherapy: Other new treatments called cancer vaccines are also aimed at getting the immune system to attack the cancer. In one approach, immune cells are removed from a patient’s blood and treated in the lab to get them to react to tumor cells. The immune cells are then given back to the patient as blood transfusions, where it is hoped they will cause the body’s immune system to attack the cancer. This approach is now being studied in clinical trials.

Another form of immunotherapy being studied is a drug called tremelimumab, which targets a certain immune cells and takes the brakes off the immune system.

Virus therapies: Researchers are also studying the use of specially designed viruses to treat mesothelioma. These viruses can be put into the pleural space, where the hope is that they can either infect and kill the cancer cells directly, or cause the immune system to attack the cancer cells. These approaches are still in the early phases of clinical trials.
February 08, 2018

What Is Malignant Mesothelioma?

Malignant mesothelioma is a cancer that starts in cells in the linings of certain parts of the body, especially in the linings of the chest or abdomen.


Cancer starts when cells start to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer?

The mesothelium

A layer of specialized cells called mesothelial cells lines the inside of the chest, the abdomen, and the space around your heart. These cells also cover the outer surface of most of your internal organs. The lining formed by these cells is called the mesothelium.

The mesothelium helps protect your organs by making a special lubricating fluid that allows organs to move against each other. For example, this fluid makes it easier for your lungs to move (expand and contract) inside the chest when you breathe. The mesothelium has different names in different parts of the body:
  • The pleura coats the lungs and the space in the chest containing the lungs.
  • The peritoneum lines the inside of the abdomen and many of the organs in the abdomen.
  • The pericardium covers the heart and creates the space that holds the heart in the chest.
  • The tunica vaginalis lines the testicles.

Mesothelial tumors can start in any of these linings. These tumors can be non-cancerous (benign) or cancerous (malignant).

Malignant mesothelioma

A cancerous tumor of the mesothelium is called a malignant mesothelioma, although this is often shortened to just mesothelioma. Mesotheliomas can start in 4 main areas in the body.

  • Pleural mesotheliomas start in the chest. About 3 out of 4 mesotheliomas are pleural mesotheliomas.
  • Peritoneal mesotheliomas begin in the abdomen. They make up most of the remaining cases.
  • Pericardial mesotheliomas start in the covering around the heart and are very rare.
  • Mesotheliomas of the tunica vaginalis are very rare tumors that start in the covering layer of the testicles.

Malignant mesotheliomas can also be classified into 3 main types based on how the cancer cells are arranged:

  • About half of mesotheliomas are epithelioid. This type tends to have a better outlook (prognosis) than the other types.
  • About 10% of mesotheliomas are sarcomatoid (fibrous).
  • Mixed (biphasic) mesotheliomas have both epithelioid and sarcomatoid areas. They make up the remaining 30% to 40% of mesotheliomas.

Benign tumors of the mesothelium

Benign (non-cancerous) tumors can also start in the mesothelium. These tumors are typically removed by surgery, and there is often no need for additional treatment.

Localized fibrous tumor of the pleura

This type of benign tumor can form in the pleura surrounding the lungs. It used to be called benign fibrous mesothelioma, but doctors now know that this tumor actually does not start in mesothelial cells. This disease is usually benign, but about 1 in 10 are cancerous. A similar condition that starts in the peritoneum is called solitary fibrous tumor of the peritoneum.

Adenomatoid mesothelioma

This benign tumor can develop in the mesothelium of certain reproductive organs. In men, it often starts in the epididymis (ducts that carry sperm cells out of the testicle). In women, this tumor can begin in the fallopian tubes (tubes that carry eggs from the ovaries to the uterus).

Benign cystic mesothelioma

This rare non-cancerous tumor often begins in the peritoneum.
February 08, 2018

What Happens After Treatment for Malignant Mesothelioma?

For some people with mesothelioma, treatment may remove or destroy the cancer. Completing treatment can be both stressful and exciting. You may be relieved to finish treatment, but find it hard not to worry about the cancer coming back. (When cancer comes back after treatment, it is called recurrence.) This is a very common concern in people who have had cancer.



It may take a while before your fears lessen. But it may help to know that many cancer survivors have learned to live with this uncertainty and are leading full lives. See Understanding Cancer Recurrence for more about this.

For many people, the mesothelioma may never go away completely. These people may get regular treatments with chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or other therapies to help keep the cancer under control and help relieve symptoms from it. Learning to live with cancer that doesn’t go away can be difficult and very stressful. It has its own type of uncertainty. See Managing Cancer as a Chronic Illness talks more about this.

Follow-up care

If you have completed treatment, your doctors will still want to watch you closely. It’s very important to keep all follow-up appointments. During these visits, your doctors will ask about symptoms, examine you, and may order blood tests (such as the osteopontin or MesoMark tests) or imaging tests such as CT scans or PET scans. There is no widely agreed upon follow-up schedule for people with mesothelioma. Your doctor will most likely want to see you fairly often (at least every few months or so) at first. The time between visits may be extended if there are no problems.

Follow-up is needed to check for signs of cancer recurrence or spread, as well as possible side effects of certain treatments. This is a good time for you to ask your health care team any questions you might have and to discuss any concerns.

Almost any cancer treatment can have side effects. Some can last for weeks or months, but others can be permanent. Don’t hesitate to tell your cancer care team about any symptoms or side effects that bother you so they can help you manage them.

If the cancer does come back, further treatment will depend on where the cancer is, what treatments you’ve had before, and your health. For more on how recurrent cancer is treated, see Treatment of Mesothelioma Based on the Extent of the Cancer. For more general information on dealing with a recurrence, see Coping With Cancer Recurrence.

Seeing a new doctor

At some point after your treatment, you may be seeing a new doctor who doesn’t know anything about your medical history. It’s important to be able to give your new doctor the details of your diagnosis and treatment. Gathering these details soon after treatment may be easier than trying to get them at some point in the future. Make sure you have the following information handy (and always keep copies for yourself):
  • A copy of your pathology report(s) from any biopsies or surgeries
  • Copies of imaging tests (such as x-rays or CT or MRI scans), which can usually be stored digitally (on a DVD, etc.)
  • If you had surgery, a copy of your operative report(s)
  • If you stayed in the hospital, a copy of the discharge summary that the doctor wrote when you were sent home
  • If you had radiation therapy, a summary of the type and dose of radiation and when and where it was given
  • If you had chemotherapy, a list of your drugs, drug doses, and when you took them
  • The names and contact information of the doctors who treated your cancer

It’s also very important to keep health insurance. Tests and doctor visits cost a lot, and even though no one wants to think of their cancer coming back, this could happen. For more information, see Understanding Health Insurance.
February 08, 2018

Weight Loss - Creating Your Personal Weight Loss Plan

Has needing to lose weight been on your mind? If so, you are in the process of following a weight loss plan or not doing anything at all. There is no middle ground. If the latter applies to you, it pays to take a moment to consider why you are not making an effort to reach your goals. Is it because of a lack of guidance and instruction? Surely you want to lose weight; otherwise, you would not be thinking about it. Perhaps the need to lose weight is more significant than your desire to get lean. Often this is the case for many adults, who realize being overweight is more problematic than it initially seems.

You may need some guidance. So let's talk about some tips for creating a weight loss program that will work for you. If you are already making an effort, the following might still be of use to you...

1. Outline your objectives

 First, you must outline your goals. Don't focus so much on the specifics. It is not nearly as important to set how much weight you ought to lose, as it is focusing on the process itself. It is better to focus on losing weight generally, not how much.

Have your "why" adequately figured out before you begin.

2. Eat well

Not surprisingly, it is vital to eat well when starting a weight loss program. Your food choices matter, more than you may think.

It becomes especially important to eat the right carbohydrates if you have high blood sugar. In any case, it will probably do you well to eat more fruits and vegetables than you already do, and eat a healthy balance of proteins and fats. They are all important.

3. Mind your portion sizes

Your portion sizes are just as important as your food choices. Even if you are selecting healthy carbohydrates such as brown rice and sweet potatoes, you can still overeat and losing weight will then be much harder.

Counting calories helps, but is too tedious for most people. By eating slowly, you will have a better idea of how much you should be eating. Always stop eating before you feel full, and don't hesitate to feel hungry for a part of your day.

4. Begin exercising

 If you have not already, start exercising. It will help, no matter which exercise program you chose. Even walking will help get the job done.

5. Anticipate setbacks

Setbacks will occur: know you will not make weekly progress forever. You will stall eventually. You will get frustrated. Relax and make adjustments if needed. Don't stress, and be patient: weight loss requires patience more than anything.

Lastly, remember to make your weight loss program your own. What works for other people will not necessarily work for you. Feel free to experiment with different diets and exercise plans. But know you will have to discover what yields the best results for you and your body.

Although managing your disease can be very challenging, Type 2 diabetes is not a condition you must just live with. You can make simple changes to your daily routine and lower both your weight and your blood sugar levels. Hang in there, the longer you do it, the easier it gets

February 08, 2018

Are eggs good for weight loss?

One of the most nutritious foods you can eat are eggs. They contain large amounts of healthy fats, protein and important vitamins. They are also low in calories, each having about 78 calories. The egg is high in nutrients, especially the yolks. A three egg meal contains about 234 calories and with a generous portion of vegetables you have a nutritious meal of about 300 calories. Of course, if you fry the eggs, you must add about 50 calories for each teaspoon of fat used.


Eggs are filling mainly because of their high protein content. High protein foods are known to be more satisfying and filling than those low in protein thus reducing the appetite and contributing to a feeling of fullness. It has been shown that an egg meal even produces fullness and reduces food intake for later meals. This is compared to meals with less protein but the same number of calories.

The Satiety Index is a scale that determines how well foods help you feel full and reduce later calorie intake. Eggs rank high in this scale.

High protein diets reduce cravings and those tormenting thoughts of food and reduce the need for late night binging or snacking.

All the essential amino acids are contained in eggs and in the correct ratios for maintenance and metabolism. You can increase your metabolism by 80-100 calories per day by consuming a high protein diet. This is because of the thermic effect which is the amount of calories used in the process of digesting, absorbing and storing your food. Thus, it takes more energy just to digest proteins than it does to digest fats or carbohydrates. So, it goes without saying that eggs, because they are high in protein, help you burn more calories.

It has been shown in studies that eating eggs for breakfast adds to a feeling of fullness and causes one to eat fewer calories over the next 36 hours in women and over the next 24 hours in men. People who ate eggs for breakfast felt more full. It has been shown that men ate 270-470 fewer calories at lunch and dinner after having eggs for breakfast.

Furthermore eggs are relatively inexpensive and easy to prepare, making it easy to add them to your daily diet. They are also available almost anywhere.

Eggs contain choline which promotes normal cell activity and liver function. It aids in the transportation of nutrients throughout the body. Choline also is important in the development of baby's memory.

You are probably wondering why I haven't mentioned cholesterol. There are recent recommendations from the American Heart Association, the American College of Cardiology and American Diabetes Association that no longer limit the intake of eggs or cholesterol. In fact, eggs are promoted as a part of a heart healthy by such organizations as Health Canada, the Canadian Heart and Stroke Foundation the Australian Heart Foundation and the Irish Heart Foundation.

So, it seems, eggs can be the "go to" food for hungry dieters. They are not only cheap they are easy to prepare. Keep a few hardboiled eggs handy in the refrigerator for snacks.

February 08, 2018

Good Weight Loss Ideas For Obese Women

Weight management is not so difficult for a woman who put on just a few pounds in recent months. Changing lifestyle and eating habit might be the major reason for those few pounds. But the consistent behavior, changing lifestyle and having no record of your eating habit can cause the obesity.


This is the stage where you need to make unstoppable efforts to reduce your weight. This is a tough stage as your body can become habitual of having a certain amount of calories and accumulated fat requires consistent efforts to come back to the shape.

If you are over 100 pounds, doctors will classify you as morbidly obese. Not only for your looks, it is important to restrict your eating habit as it can lead to the dire risk of health problems and early death. Diet control can't help the obese women completely. It requires a professional assistance, regular exercise, weight reduction, lifestyle change, diet change and medical interventions as well.

In order to reduce the risk of chronic ailment, consult with your doctor about weight management. First of all, you should focus on your diet.

Fight with obesity with a diet plan

While following a proper weight-loss strategy, you should reduce your calorie intake gradually. When you start cutting from 500-1000 calories daily basis, you will get a chance of reducing 1 or 2 pounds on daily basis. Avoid high fat and sugar food including fatty cuts of meats, dairy products, white bread, pasta, soda, sweets and processed snacks.

If you cut your 50-55 percent calories from carbohydrates, you will improve your metabolism. Increase fiber intake which helps you to digest food more quickly.

Focus on workouts

If you count yourself among the obese people, begin with light exercise and reach to the harder workouts. You will reduce approx. 10 perfect of weight by cutting extra calories from your diet and rest will work when you start from light to moderately intense workouts.

You can start with 20-30 minutes exercise at regular intervals of 10 minutes and take it to the 90 minutes of intense workout sessions.

Medical intervention is always helpful

If you keep working on your diet plan and workouts, medical intervention will help you more to expedite your weight reduction procedure. Even if the diet control and workouts can't help you, you will feel a remarkable support having good weight loss pills for women which will help you to reach your desired weight within a month or a few more. But, you will get the definite number as soon you control your diet and spend more time on intense workouts.

February 08, 2018

How to Identify Skin Allergies and Treat Them in Time


Allergies are the bane of life. These conditions pop up at the least times and can create a lot of discomfort to life in general. In the more advanced stages, they can wreak havoc since they can become potentially life threatening! It is always a wise thing to find out what allergies your body is prone to and how to identify them. This will help you get the right kind of treatment at the right time before things get worse. Different people contract different types of allergies. Some are externally seen, while others are more internal. Either way, they need to be attended to as soon as possible. Skin rashes and other skin conditions are very visible and if not treated in time, can leave permanent scars.

Various types of symptoms 

Rashes are normal skin conditions that occur when the body reacts adversely to an allergen. These can easily be treated with the help of over the counter lotions and ointments. But hives are an entirely different category of rashes and are detected using Urticaria Diagnosis. They normally cause itching, but sometimes they may sting or even cause a burning sensation. They appear suddenly as if out of nowhere, anywhere including the tongue, lips, face, ears, throat, etc. They come in different sizes ranging from tiny spots to the size of dinner plates! At times they may fuse together to form plaques.

Life threatening conditions 

Hives are red bumps that appear on the skin due to allergic reactions of the body. They appear for a few hours or so, or at the most for a day. After that they fade away. Angioedema is just the same as hives, but the swelling bumps appear underneath the skin rather than on the surface. Deep swelling can be seen around the lips, eyes, and at times on the hands, feet, and genitals as well. Urticaria Diagnosis can help to identify this condition before it gets worse. In rare cases, angioedema can occur in the throat and lungs, which can make breathing very difficult.

Contributing to research

If you are interested in learning more about these types of diseases and want to contribute to researching them and finding out better cures and preventive measures, you can apply for exams that will help you gain valuable insight into Urticaria Diagnosis. These exams are conducted by internationally recognized organizations that are dedicated to researching immunologic and allergic diseases with a view to educating people about the same. If you want to be a part of this program, check out their websites and enroll right away. These exams are based on revised questions that are prepared on topics such as allergens, drug hypersensitivity, dermatological and respiratory allergies, etc

February 07, 2018

What Really Works to Firm Face Skin - Ingredients, Proper Washing and Sweating



Young people do not pay much attention to their skin's health. People usually notice and get alarmed only when their skin already starts to sag and wrinkles start to appear. Luckily, there are ways to make the skin firmer again. You surely have found lots of products that claim to firm your skin. Unfortunately, not all of them work and most people find it hard to know what really works to firm face skin. Here are some ways to tell whether the product will work or not without trying it.

Look at the Ingredients

Good ingredients are the first sign that the skin care product will work. A product that has anti-oxidants, hyaluronic acid, collagen production booster, calcium, and vitamin E is what really works to firm face skin. There are many free radicals that could damage the skin cells so anti-oxidants are very important. CoQ10 is a good example.

Hyaluronic acid naturally occurs in the body. It acts as glue for the collagen and elastin. The skin will sag without or with lack of it so it is important for your skin care product to have hyaluronic acid.

A product that could block enzymes that damages hyaluronic acid such as hyaluronidase would also help. For lack of collagen causes sagging skin, a product that enhances collagen production is what really works to firm face skin again.

The molecules of collagen are too big for the skin to absorb so substances that could boost the skin's own collagen production are preferred.

You will need expensive collagen injections if you want a direct supply of collagen but creams that have collagen will not really work. Additionally, the skin needs vitamins such as vitamin E and minerals like calcium to be healthy. You can eat foods that have them or buy skin care products that contain them.

Proper Use of Skin Care Products

Once you found a product that has all or most of the ingredients mentioned above, you need to ensure that you use them properly. What really works to firm your face skin is proper and regular washing. However, avoid too frequent washing especially if you use soap or facial wash. Washing your face in the morning and before going to sleep would suffice.

Heat and Sweat

Aside from products that you can apply to your skin, you can also engage to activities that will make you sweat. You may also consider having a steam bath. It tightens the pores and the sweat carries impurities.
February 07, 2018

The Easy Way To Healthy, Glowing Skin

Who would not want a beautiful and clear complexion? For some, this comes naturally as they inherit some amazing genes from their parents that keep their skin healthy and glowing, despite erratic schedules and unhealthy eating habits. For others, who wake up almost every morning dreading an acne or a clogged pore they might see on their skin, getting a radiant glow can be quite a task. As one progresses in years, it might become increasingly difficult to keep the skin well nourished and glowing. The skin develops wrinkles, age spots, and blemishes with age, if not cared for properly. Anti-aging products, such as the Hydroxatone anti-aging cream, take on added importance in such situations. For women, who are not aware about the product, Hydroxatone reviews can offer a whole world of information.


The point is that a woman can get that lively glow, even when she is in her late twenties or thirties and is more prone to wrinkles. Read the latest Hydroxatone reviews and you would be amazed at the number of women, who have used this anti-aging cream and have benefited from the product. This anti-aging lotion contains some key ingredients that hydrate the skin while improving the skin tone and radiance. Ingredients, such as matrixyl3000, are scientifically tested and can reduce the appearance of even deep wrinkles by as much as 44 percent. This anti-aging cream also comes with SPF 15 to shield the skin against the UVA and UVB rays of the sun.

Most of the Hydroxatone reviews are quite upbeat about the use of this product. You must keep in mind that skin is the largest organ in our body and like other organs, it can also get malnourished from time to time. The use of an anti-aging product can only be effective if it is complemented by simple yet effective steps in daily life, to combat the natural wear and tear that comes with age.

You can avoid going out in the sun, especially at peak afternoon hours, when the UV rays can cause maximum damage. Taking the right kind of food can also get that healthy glow back to your skin. According to latest research, certain food products have the power to protect your skin from the damage caused by UV radiation. Citrus fruits, green tea, carrots, and red pepper containing carotenoids and antioxidants can build up your inner protection against sun burns and wrinkles. Carotenoids are known to reduce the intensity of sun burns. According to a recent Wisconsin study, antioxidants can stop genetic damage in the skin cells that have been exposed to sunlight.

The use of the "best" anti-aging product combined with these steps can go a long way in ensuring that you get the skin that you have always dreamed of. If you are wary of taking the first step when it comes to using some of the anti-aging lotions currently available on the market, then you can benefit from the experience of others. You can go through Hydroxatone reviews to know how this innovative cream has made many women more confident in the way they look. When you read these reviews, you would also know where to buy Hydroxatone, without having to worry about the product's authenticity.
February 07, 2018

Top 3 Solutions To Reduce Scar Marks


Irrespective of whether you have acne scars or stretch marks, the fact is that both make your skin look old, dull and unclear. Due to this sole reason, it is extremely important for every individual to get rid of any scar mark on the body. When it comes to reducing scar marks, many solutions are available in the market that claim to reduce acne marks and any type of scar from face and body. However, the statistics show that not every solution is worth a try or provide results as promised. In order to make your selection process easy, here is a list of top 3 solutions that are known for positive scar treatment on face and body.

1. Silicone scar sheeting

 It is the most reasonable, best and quickest way to remove scar from the face and body. It can be a great alternative to any other scar treatment because it non-surgically reduces the appearance of scars from burns, chemicals, tattoo removal, cystic acid, cuts, acne, any type of stretch marks on the body. Along with that, it is also known to reduce hypertrophic and keloid scars from face and body. Some major benefits of this treatments are:
  • Works on any scar regardless of age, appearance and severity
  • It is a soft, reusable and durable medical grade silicone patch
  • It can be used with any skin color and type
  • It is low-cost and convenient
  • Reduces scars in just 7 days

2. Scar treatment creams

 This is another popular way to reduce scars from face and body. However, it takes weeks and sometimes months to reduce scar marks and the reduction is not 100% guaranteed. There are a large number of scar removal creams available in the market and selecting the best one out of many is rather difficult. If you are going for this option, make sure to find out what your skin type is and purchase a cream accordingly. It is also advisable to consult a doctor before making a purchase or applying any type of product on the scar marks.

3. Laser scar treatment

 Use this option if you have tons of money to spend on skin treatment. This is considered to be the most expensive way to remove scar or stretch marks. The result is mostly positive and it is known to reduce marks to 95-100%. However, this treatment may or may not suit your skin or body, which makes it important that you consult a well-known specialist for this treatment.