Health and Care

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Health and Care

April 16, 2020

Covid-19 and Chloroquine

US and French specialists have approved the utilization of chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, yet the EU controller and WHO state the science doesn't bolster the choice. Susan Jaffe reports.

With no "satisfactory, affirmed and accessible" elective, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is permitting the utilization of the antimalarial drugs hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine to treat coronavirus illness 2019 (COVID-19).

The FDA's crisis use authorisation (EUA) gave a week ago gives doctors the alternative to endorse the medications, which President Donald Trump has prescribed. In any case, the two medications are dubious and untested for COVID-19, and have uncommon yet possibly fatal symptoms. The choice skirted the standard medication endorsement process including twofold visually impaired, fake treatment controlled clinical preliminaries, feeding an overall discussion about whether the medications are proper for treating the infection.

"I think it was turned to increasingly out of a feeling of distress", said Joseph Masci, an irresistible illness master and executive of worldwide wellbeing at Elmhurst Hospital in Queens, a ward of New York City, which is at the focal point of the pestilence in the USA. "It is only a sign of how abrupt and enormous this episode has been."

Toward the beginning of March, US wellbeing specialists announced around 100 instances of COVID-19 and ten passings. Very nearly a month later, there are more than 363 000 cases and 10 847 individuals have kicked the bucket as of April 7, as indicated by state and government information accumulated by the COVID Tracking Project.

Elmhurst, with 545 beds, is one of 11 medical clinics in a system of open emergency clinics known as the Health and Hospitals Corporation. Masci said hydroxychloroquine, which is all the more generally utilized for different infections and is less harmful than chloroquine, has been regulated to certain patients with COVID-19 all through the framework, including a few hundred at Elmhurst. The course of treatment runs 5 days and, up until this point, the outcomes have been blended, he said.

Under the EUA, hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine can be utilized distinctly in an emergency clinic setting to treat COVID-19 in grown-ups and teenagers who weigh at any rate 50 kg and can't partake in a clinical preliminary. The medications should likewise be acquired from the national store to secure the stock for different patients who have depended on the medications for quite a long time to control immune system sicknesses including lupus and rheumatoid joint pain. Yet, 3 days after the EUA, a flood sought after constrained the organization to proclaim a lack of the two medications.

Up until now, France is one of a couple of nations that likewise license the medications to be utilized for patients with COVID-19. Resistance has originated from the European Medicines Agency, the EU's pharmaceutical controller, which emphasized not long ago that reviews have not yet recorded that the medications can successfully treat COVID-19.

WHO agrees, refering to "lacking information to evaluate the adequacy of both of these medications in treating patients with COVID-19, or in keeping them from getting the coronavirus".

However, in the USA, the FDA's central researcher Denise Hinton and creator of the EUA was less disturbed by such concerns. "In light of the totality of logical proof accessible to [the] FDA, it is sensible to accept that chloroquine phosphate and hydroxychloroquine sulfate might be compelling in treating COVID-19", she composed, without giving references to considers supporting that end.

In spite of the fact that the adequacy of the medications as a COVID-19 treatment may be questionable, their symptoms are definitely not.

"What I know without a doubt as a cardiologist is that these amazing drugs have significant symptoms including once in a while abrupt cardiovascular passing", said Michael Ackerman, a hereditary cardiologist and chief of Mayo Clinic's Windland Smith Rice Genetic Heart Rhythm Clinic. He said that in any event 1% of patients will be at expanded hazard for a hydroxychloroquine or chloroquine QT response fit for activating medication prompted abrupt heart demise (particularly whenever utilized in blend with azithromycin). Albeit such responses are uncommon, if a huge number of individuals get the medications, a great many lives could be in danger from meds that should assist them with recovering from the infection, he said. Ackerman accepts such desperate outcomes can be maintained a strategic distance from effectively if doctors cautiously assess helpless patients.

In New York City, Masci said the patients with COVID-19 at Elmhurst Hospital have not experienced unfriendly impacts from hydroxychloroquine. The medical clinic is getting ready for some new patients and has set up beds in tents in the parking area. "We are seeing an exceptionally quick ascent in patients with [COVID-19], a condition that never existed and has its own issues regarding treatment, avoidance, and transmission", he said. "It has been an extremely, testing issue and we don't think it has hit the pinnacle yet."
November 07, 2018


1. Eliminate Tired Puffy Eyes With Chilled Tea Bags

Briefly steep 2 green, black, or chamomile tea bags in hot water for less than a minute. Then remove the tea bags from the water and chill in a small bowl in the refrigerator. Once chilled, place 1 bag over each closed eyelid. Leave on your lids for 5 to 15 minutes. Watch this video if you’d like to see me explain this.

2. Use Raspberries And Coconut Oil For Brighter Lips

In a small saucepan on low heat, warm 1 Tablespoon coconut oil until it liquefies. Remove from heat and add 4 fresh or frozen red raspberries. Mash berries and blend until smooth. Place in a small glass container and refrigerate until firm. Use clean fingers or a lipgloss brush to smooth over lips. Make this fresh every few days.

3. Get A Natural Face Lift With Simple Yoga Poses

Doing inverted postures before pictures, interviews, and meetings can improve circulation and help give your face some extra lift and vitality. You perform the “downward dog” yoga pose by getting on the floor on your hands and knees and then straightening your legs. Or, simply bend forward and reach towards your toes. Stay in one of these positions as long as you feel comfortable, for about 1 to 5 minutes. If you have physical limitations such as injuries or back pain, check with your healthcare provider about how to modify this posture. Here are 7 different poses you can do for glowing skin.

4. Get Soft, Kissable Skin With A Natural Pomegranate, Raspberry, and Sweet Almond Oil Blend

Naturally hydrate dry skin and add an extra glow to the end of your skincare routine by creating a natural antioxidant-rich oil blend. Apply after cleansing or after putting on makeup. Mix together equal parts Pomegranate seed oil, Raspberry seed oil, and Sweet Almond Oil, or get the already made The Spa Dr. Glow Boost.

Place 3 to 6 drops of the oil mixture in the palm of your hand, rub your hands together to warm the oils. Then, with your fingertips gently press the warm oil into dry areas of your face or areas where you have fine lines and wrinkles.

5. Reduce Skin Creases By Changing Your Pillowcase

Instead of coarser fabrics, choose a pillowcase that is soft and silky to decrease the friction and skin compression that occurs while you sleep and leaves you with extra lines in the morning. If you sleep on your side, try switching sides occasionally or sleeping on your back, so your face doesn’t wrinkle over time from pressure in certain areas. But, don’t stress about this… ultimately, you want to be comfortable because high-quality sleep is essential for natural beauty. Here are some other beauty sleep tips from my friend Kathy Smith.

6. Hydrate Dry Skin With Coconut Water

Start your morning with a glass of fresh unsweetened coconut water. And, throughout the day, drink filtered water. At meals include skin-hydrating foods such as wild salmon, avocado, olives, and coconut.

7. Prevent Sun Damaged Skin By Eating Wild Salmon

Astaxanthin is a potent antioxidant that helps protect skin from the harmful effects of UVA sun damage, acting almost like an internal sunblock. It’s found in seafood such as salmon, krill, shrimp, lobster, crabs, and crayfish. You can also get astaxanthin through supplements.

Enjoy several servings per week of wild salmon and seafood and consider taking a supplement every day, especially during sunny times of the year. You also want to protect your skin on the outside with a natural sun protector.

8. Remove Dead Skin And Revitalize Your Face With An Organic Papaya Mask

Many exfoliants contain abrasive ingredients that scratch your skin, which may damage the skin and speed signs of aging. Instead, it’s better to use an enzymatic exfoliant. Papaya contains the natural enzyme papain, and pineapple contains the enzyme bromelain, which helps naturally exfoliate the skin to leave it smooth and soft. Greener (unripe) papayas have higher amounts of papain, so opt for these to get the best benefit. If you have sensitive skin, use ripe papayas as they are less likely to trigger an inflammatory reaction.

Scoop out a ¼ cup raw papaya flesh and mash or blend with 1 Tablespoon fresh pineapple until smooth. Apply to dry skin and leave on for 5 to 15 minutes. Then rinse with cool water. If you have sensitive skin, do a patch test on your arm before applying to face.

The alpha hydroxy acids and the enzymes in this recipe dissolve dry, dead skin. You only need to do this once or twice per week.

9. Turn Mineral Makeup Powder Into A Natural Sunblock

Use tinted mineral sunblock instead of foundation or mix your favorite mineral makeup powder with a sunblock like this one for a natural makeup that is light and protects your skin from the sun’s damaging effects. Mineral-based (zinc oxide) sunblocks sometimes appear white and pasty so adding a mineral makeup tint helps your skin look glowing and smooth.

10. Hydrate And Nourish Lips With Shea Butter

Traditional chapsticks contain petrolatum, mineral oil, and hormone-disrupting oxybenzone. Replace these with nourishing natural ingredients such as shea butter (or cocoa butter) and coconut oil. Make your own lip salve using equal parts of these ingredients or follow my friend Katie’s (Wellness Mama) DIY

11. Get Clear Radiant Skin By Cutting Sugar Out

Sugar is the biggest contributor to inflammation that shows up on the skin as acne, dry itchy skin, and wrinkles. Try cutting sugar from your diet for 10 days, especially if you have an important day coming up and want to look your best.

12. Reduce Fine Lines And Wrinkles With Bone Broth

Collagen helps give our skin its tone and is crucial for reducing fine lines and wrinkles. Since production naturally depletes as we age, consider taking a high-quality collagen supplement from a clean source. Bone broth and gelatin contain collagen, and vitamin C helps with collagen production.

13. Cleanse Your Skin With Almond Oil

Switch from bar to liquid soap that doesn’t lather. Instead of stripping your skin with foamy cleansers, nourish your skin while you cleanse for a healthy clean glow. You can use oils such as argan and almond oil to cleanse the skin naturally or use a natural cleanser.

14. Stop Dark Circles Under Your Eyes With Arnica

If you have chronic under eye circles, you may have “allergic shiners” which indicate a food or environmental allergy. Try to identify any possible allergens and avoid them for 10 days to see if you notice a difference. If you wake up with an occasional darkness under your eyes then try using arnica gel or skin care products containing arnica. Arnica has powerful anti-inflammatory properties that alleviate swelling and reduce the appearance of dark under eye circles.

15. Improve Your Complexion With Ylang Ylang Oil

Skip synthetic fragrances containing harmful ingredients such as phthalates. Instead, use natural fragrances in the form of pure essential oils such as ylang ylang.

In addition to having a lovely smell, Ylang Ylang Flower Oil helps balance sebum levels for both dry and oily complexions. And, it has a soothing and smoothing effect. Just add a few drops to your favorite oil blend. It’s also one of the essential oils in my favorite skin care. Here’s a great resource for more about harmful ingredients in skin care.

16. Turn Stress Into Bliss For Clear Beautiful Skin

Skin issues such as premature aging, acne, eczema, rosacea, and vitiligo are worsened by chronic stress and upset. Sleep, meditation, exercise and touch are some important ways to relieve stress so you can have glowing skin, naturally. A good night’s sleep gives time for our skin to rejuvenate. Meditation and moderate exercise are known to help us manage stress. And, touch causes the release of the hormone oxytocin which makes us feel happy and a sense of belonging. If you need help here are some places for tips on sleep, meditation, and exercise.

17. Prevent Sunburns, Sun Damage And Uneven Skin Tone With Green Algae

Sun protection is essential for healthy skin and natural beauty. While some sun may give you a sun-kissed glow, we know that too much damages your skin and predisposes you to premature aging, uneven skin tone, and skin cancer. My favorite sunblocks contain zinc oxide instead of harmful chemical sunscreens that have been linked to hormone disrupting effects. Here is one of my favorites.

Also, you can nourish and protect your skin from the sun’s damaging effects by using skincare with natural ingredients such as chlorella and resveratrol. Due to its high levels of chlorophyll, Chlorella Vulgaris (Green Algae) Extract, helps shields the body from UV radiation.

Also, Resveratrol has potent antioxidant effects on the skin. Because cell damage is at the root of most aging disorders, protecting the skin from free-radical activity is a significant preventative measure for healthy skin.

18. Get Natural Glowing Skin With Micronutrients

Your skin needs certain micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) for speedy skin repair and turnover. Zinc, vitamin A, and vitamin C are some of the important nutrients to get from food or in the form of a supplement to help ensure your skin remains healthy, especially if you have chronic skin issues such as acne, eczema and premature aging.

19. Use Aloe Vera To Transform Red Irritated Skin Into Soft Healthly Skin

If your skin is red and irritated, you’ll want to soothe it right away. Prolonged inflammation of your skin can cause your skin to break down collagen. Or, if you just want smooth, vibrant skin, you can also use this skin soother. Aloe Vera gel has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and healing properties, and it penetrates the skin easily to provide nourishment.

It’s terrific for soothing skin that’s been overexposed to the sun, as well as for treating minor cuts and scrapes, eczema, and acne. In most stores, the aloe you’ll find contains preservatives, fillers, and artificial ingredients. Look for pure aloe from your local health food store, or buy an aloe plant and simply slice open a leaf, extracting and saving the gel. The Spa Dr.’s Daily Essentials contains aloe, as well.

20. Super Moisturize Skin Naturally With Hyaluronic Acid

When we travel, are stressed, or experience extreme weather conditions, our skin can appear shriveled and dull. And, as we age, our skin becomes less resistant and may appear unhealthy. Sodium Hyaluronate (Hyaluronic acid) is a wonderful hydrophilic ingredient, which means it readily binds to water and gives super moisturizing properties.

Hyaluronic acid is found throughout the body, but it especially concentrated on the skin. Because of its high water-binding capacity, it acts as a hydrating agent and space filler. It supports collagen and elastin, by keeping them nourished and moist, reduces the appearance of wrinkles while keeping the skin soft, smooth and supple. You can find Hyaluronic acid in some natural skin care products.

21. Get An Instant, Youthful Skin Lift Using Antioxidant-Rich Natural Actives

Avoid the neurotoxin Botox and other more invasive procedures and look to nature instead. Antioxidant-rich and hydrating natural actives can lift and protect the skin naturally. And, one of the ingredients in quality organic skin care serums is Pullulan, which has an instant lifting effect, naturally! It is a polysaccharide produced from starch by cultivating the yeast, Aureobasidiumpullulans. It provides an antioxidant effect as well as an instant lifting effect that helps improve the overall texture and appearance of the skin. Long-term use of Pullulan will help strengthen the integrity of the skin.

22. Brighten Dull Skin Using Green Tea As A Toner

White and green teas applied topically on the skin have anti-inflammatory, brightening, evening, cleansing and hydrating properties. They’re ideal for using as a skin brightening tea toner. You can make a tea toner with one or both of these teas by steeping the teas for 5 minutes, allowing them to cool to room temperature. Then, either pat onto your face, apply with cotton pads or pour into a spray bottle and spritz onto clean skin. You can learn more about toners in this video.

23. Eliminate Pimples For Clear Skin With Tea Tree Oil

Tea tree oil is well-known for its antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties, and research shows it can help reduce mild to moderate acne breakouts. Be sure to use diluted tree oil because the undiluted variety can burn and irritate skin when applied directly. Just add 1 to 2 drops to a single application of your cleanser, serum or moisturizer. You want about a 5% dilution, which means 5 drops of tea tree oil per 1 teaspoon of carrier oil or cream. You can apply this 2 – 3 times daily.

24. Use Chamomile Tea Ice Cubes To Freshen Up Tired Looking Skin

Brew a strong pot of chamomile tea (about 1.5 cups water with 1 teabag), allow to cool 10 minutes or more and then pour into ice tray and place in freezer. Once frozen, wrap the tea cube in a thin cloth or washcloth and apply to pimples, puffy under eye skin, sun-kissed skin, or irritated skin for a quick skin toner pick up. You only need to apply for a few seconds to a minute per area.

25. Clean Facial Pores With Honey, Turmeric, And Yogurt For A Smoother Complexion

Combine the healing, clarifying, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial effects of honey with pore cleansing and sebum balancing effects of turmeric and pH enhancing and lactic acid effects of yogurt into this pore cleanser… Mix together 1 Tablespoon plain yogurt, 1 Tablespoon raw honey and 1 teaspoon turmeric powder into a paste. Apply to face and neck and leave for about 10 to 15 minutes. Then wash with cool water, pat your skin dry and apply your favorite serum and moisturizer.

26. Make A Natural Beauty Mask To Restore And Hydrate Tired Dull Skin

Oats have moisturizing, anti-inflammatory, and healing properties. Avocado is hydrating and nourishing, with naturally occurring vitamins A and E. And, Yogurt contains nutrients, enzymes and active cultures that help reduce inflammation and balance the pH of your skin for a healthy skin microbiome. In a bowl, blend together 1/4 cup oat flour (ground uncooked oats), 2 Tablespoons unsweetened yogurt and ¼ of an avocado. Mix well and then apply enough to cover your clean, dry face. Leave on face for 10 to 20 minutes and then remove with warm, wet washcloth, and then rinse face with water and pat dry. Use the mask once per day as needed.
November 07, 2018

10 Super Simple All Natural Beauty Tips

1. Banana and Egg Hair Treatment

Looking for a little more shine in your hair? Simply mix one egg and a mashed up banana. Apply it as a thick paste to your hair and leave it on for 10 – 30 minutes. Wash it our doing your usual hair washing ritual (if you usually use a store-bought conditioner you’ll probably only need to condition the ends). And voila! Super simple, and all natural, beauty tip.

2. Moisturizing Nail Treatment

Soak your nails in olive oil for five minutes. And then sit back and admire your pretty hands. 10 super simple all natural beauty tips. Yes!

3. Simple Honey Face Mask

Raw honey is naturally anti-bacterial and a super quick way to get soft, beautiful skin. Once a week use a tablespoon or so of raw honey (not the processed stuff parading as honey) and gently warm it by rubbing your fingertips together. Spread on your face. Leave on for 5 – 10 minutes and then use warm water to gently rinse it off and pat dry. Then bask in the glow of your honey-awesomeness. This raw honey is awesome, by the way.

4. Apple Cider Vinegar Clarifying Shampoo

For those who are using commercial shampoos: To help eliminate any build up in your hair, mix ¼ cup organic apple cider vinegar (like this) with 1 cup water. Follow with your usual conditioner.

5. Elbow and Knee Exfoliate and Skin Brightener

Cut an orange in half and rub it on your elbows and knees. Helps soften those rough patches. And it smells good. (Rinse off the sticky mess when you are done.)

6. Gentle Body Scrub

Mix a 2 to 1 ratio of olive oil and sea salt to make a quick and effective body scrub. This helps get rid of dead skin cells creating softer, more glowing skin. And this natural beauty tip is much cheaper that expensive store bought  body scrubs.

7. Easy Deep Conditioning Hair Treatment

Want super soft, hydrated hair? This is one of my favorite all natural beauty tips. Use melted coconut oil as a deep conditioning hair and scalp treatment. Massage coconut oil into your scalp and then work it through your hair. Leave it on for a couple of hours and then wash it out using shampoo (no need to condition unless you have really long hair and then maybe just the ends.) Note: For you no ‘poo-ers keep in mind that coconut oil will saturate your hair with awesome goodness… that can be really hard to get out with just baking soda and *some* natural shampoos. You may want to try just a little coconut oil on a little section of hair and see if you can get it out before you do this. Otherwise you might have really greasy (but soft!) hair for a few washes. NOT that I’m speaking from personal experience of anything (*cough*). 10 super simple all natural beauty tips. Yes!

8. Simple Toxic-Free Shaving Cream

Use coconut oil on your legs as a natural replacement for your shaving cream. Talk about a simple, natural beauty tip.

9. All Natural Black Head Removal

Place 4 or 5 drops of raw honey on an open lemon wedge. Then rub the lemon on your face for a minute, emphasizing any trouble areas. Leave the mixture on for 5 minutes and rinse with cold water. (Keep in mind that citrus can make your skin photosensitive so it’s best to do this before bed rather than before going outside).

10. Dry Brushing for Better Skin

Dry brushing is a simple detoxification process for your body. It stimulates a number of organs through a gently massage. It also helps the lymphatic system, eliminates dead skin coatings, strengthens the immune system, can eliminate cellulite, stimulates the hormones, and can help tighten skin through better circulation. Best of all, it’s cheap and easy. Learn more about dry brushing and how to do it here. Here’s a great skin brush to get you started!

Take Care

Remember, the best all natural beauty tips and secrets are not quick fixes. They require good sleep, stress management, proper nutrition, healthy supplementation and physical exercise. While all these little “gems” above can provide some oomph to your beauty routine, remember that real beauty is a result of taking care (or “thanking”) your body on a daily basis. And by being you. Because you are beautiful.
March 24, 2018

Health Risks of Smoking Tobacco

About half of all Americans who keep smoking will die because of the habit. Each year more than 480,000 people in the United States die from illnesses related to tobacco use. This means each year smoking causes about 1 out of 5 deaths in the US.

  • Smoking cigarettes kills more Americans than alcohol, car accidents, HIV, guns, and illegal drugs combined.
  • Cigarette smokers die younger than non-smokers.
  • Smoking shortens male smokers’ lives by about 12 years and female smokers’ lives by about 11 years.
  • Smoking not only causes cancer. It can damage nearly every organ in the body, including the lungs, heart, blood vessels, reproductive organs, mouth, skin, eyes, and bones.

How smoking tobacco affects your cancer risk

Smoking accounts for about 30% of all cancer deaths in the United States, including about 80% of all lung cancer deaths. Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death in both men and women, and is one of the hardest cancers to treat.

Not only does smoking increase the risk for lung cancer, it’s also a risk factor for cancers of the:

  • Mouth
  • Larynx (voice box)
  • Pharynx (throat)
  • Esophagus (swallowing tube)
  • Kidney
  • Cervix
  • Liver
  • Bladder
  • Pancreas
  • Stomach
  • Colon/rectum
  • Myeloid leukemia

Cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and spit and other types of smokeless tobacco all cause cancer. There is no safe way to use tobacco.

Does inhaling affect the risk of cancer?

Yes. Wherever smoke touches living cells, it does harm. Even smokers who don’t inhale are breathing in large amounts of smoke that comes from their mouths and the lit end of the cigarette, cigar, or pipe. They are at risk for lung cancer and other diseases caused by secondhand smoke.

How smoking tobacco damages your lungs

Smoking damages the airways and small air sacs in your lungs. This damage starts early in smokers, and lung function continues to worsen as long as the person smokes. Still, it may take years for the problem to become noticeable enough for lung disease to be diagnosed.

Smoking makes pneumonia and asthma worse. It also causes many other lung diseases that can be nearly as bad as lung cancer.


COPD, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, is the name for long-term lung disease which includes both chronic bronchitis and emphysema (discussed below). The risk of COPD goes up the more you smoke and the longer you smoke. It gets worse over time, and there is no cure.

Here are some facts about COPD:
  • COPD is the third leading cause of death in the United States.
  • Smoking is by far the most common cause of COPD.
  • More women die from COPD than men.

Noises in the chest (such as wheezing, rattling, or whistling), shortness of breath during activity, and coughing up mucus (phlegm) are some of the early signs of COPD. Over time, COPD can make it hard to breathe even at rest. The late stage is one of the most miserable of all illnesses. It makes people gasp for breath and feel as if they are drowning.

Chronic bronchitis

Chronic bronchitis is a type of COPD. It’s a disease where the airways make too much mucus, forcing the person to cough it out. It’s a common problem for smokers. The airways become inflamed (swollen) and the cough becomes chronic (long-lasting). The symptoms can get better at times, but the cough keeps coming back. Over time, the airways get blocked by scar tissue and mucus, which can lead to bad lung infections (pneumonia).

There’s no cure for chronic bronchitis, but quitting smoking can help keep symptoms under control. Quitting smoking also helps keep the damage from getting worse.


Emphysema is the other type of COPD. It slowly destroys a person’s ability to breathe. Normally, the lungs contain millions of tiny sacs that help oxygen get into the blood. In emphysema, the walls between the sacs break down and create larger but fewer sacs. This lowers the amount of oxygen reaching the blood. Over time, these sacs can break down to the point where a person with emphysema must work very hard to get enough air, even when at rest.

People with emphysema are at risk for many other problems linked to weak lung function, including pneumonia. In later stages of the disease, patients can only breathe comfortably with oxygen.

Emphysema cannot be cured or reversed, but it can be treated and slowed down if the person stops smoking.

Why do smokers have “smoker’s cough?”

Tobacco smoke has many chemicals and particles that irritate the airways and lungs. When a smoker inhales these substances, the body tries to get rid of them by making mucus and coughing.

The early morning smoker’s cough happens for many reasons. Normally, tiny hair-like structures (called cilia) in the airways help sweep harmful material out of the lungs. But tobacco smoke slows the sweeping action, so some of the particles in the smoke stay in the lungs and mucus stays in the airways. While a smoker sleeps (and doesn’t smoke), some cilia recover and start working again. After waking up, the smoker coughs because the lungs are trying to clear away the irritants and mucus that built up from the day before.

So-called “smoker’s cough” can be an early sign of COPD.

How smoking tobacco affects your heart and blood vessels

Smoking tobacco damages your heart and blood vessels (cardiovascular system), increasing your risk of heart disease and stroke. It’s a major cause of coronary heart disease, which can lead to a heart attack.

Smoking causes high blood pressure, lowers your ability to exercise, and makes your blood more likely to clot. It also decreases HDL (good) cholesterol levels in the blood.

Smoking is a major risk factor for peripheral arterial disease (PAD). In PAD, plaque builds up in the arteries that carry blood to the head, organs, and limbs. This increases your risk of heart disease, heart attack, and stroke.

Smoking can cause or worsen poor blood flow to the arms and legs. (This is called peripheral vascular disease or PVD). This can cause pain in the legs when walking, and may lead to open sores that don’t heal. Surgery to improve the blood flow often fails in people who keep smoking. This is why many doctors who operate on blood vessels (vascular surgeons) won’t do certain operations on patients with PVD unless they stop smoking.

How smoking tobacco can affect your sex life and reproductive system


Tobacco use can damage a woman’s reproductive health. Women who smoke are more likely to have trouble getting pregnant. When they are pregnant they also tend to have problems that can hurt both mother and baby, for instance:

  • Smokers are more likely to have an ectopic pregnancy (where the embryo implants outside the uterus), which can threaten the mother’s life.
  • Smokers are also more likely to have early membrane ruptures and placentas that separate from the uterus too early.
  • Serious bleeding, early delivery (premature birth), and emergency Caesarean section (C-section) may result from these problems.
  • Smokers are more likely to have miscarriages, stillbirths, babies with cleft lip or palate, and low birth-weight babies.
  • Smoking during pregnancy has also been linked to a higher risk of birth defects and sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

Women who smoke tend to be younger at the start of menopause than non-smokers and may have more unpleasant symptoms while going through menopause.


Smoking damages the arteries, and blood flow is a key part of male erections. Male smokers have a higher risk of sexual impotence (erectile dysfunction) the more they smoke and the longer they smoke. At least one study has also linked cigar smoking to sexual impotence in men.

Smoking can also affect sperm (which reduces fertility) and increase the risk for miscarriage and birth defects.

Other ways smoking tobacco affects your health

Not all of the health problems related to smoking result in deaths. Smoking affects a smoker’s health in many ways, harming nearly every organ of the body and causing many diseases. Here are a few examples of other ways smoking tobacco affects your health:

  • Increased risk of gum disease and tooth loss.
  • Wounds taking longer to heal
  • Decreased immune system function
  • Increased risk of type 2 diabetes
  • Decreased sense of smell and taste
  • Premature aging of the skin
  • Bad breath and stained teeth
  • Increased risk for cataracts (clouding of the lenses of the eyes)
  • Lower bone density (thinner bones), which means a higher risk for broken bones, including hip fracture
  • Higher risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis
  • Increased risk for age-related macular degeneration, which can cause blindness
  • Increased risk of peptic ulcers

Many of the health problems linked to smoking can steal away a person’s quality of life long before death. Smoking-related illness can make it harder for a person to breathe, get around, work, or play. Quitting smoking, especially at younger ages, can reduce smoking-related disability.

Kids who smoke have smoking-related health problems

Smoking causes serious health problems in children and teens. The most serious is nicotine addiction, which leads to long-term tobacco use. Over time, smokers then develop the health problems discussed above, and often at younger ages.

Children and teens who smoke regularly tend to have more health problems than kids who don’t, such as:
  • Coughing spells
  • Shortness of breath, even when not exercising
  • Wheezing or gasping
  • More frequent headaches
  • Increased phlegm (mucus)
  • Respiratory illnesses that are worse and happen more often
  • Worse cold and flu symptoms
  • Reduced physical fitness
  • Poor lung growth and function, which increases COPD risk

Tobacco use is linked to other harmful behaviors in teens

Research has shown that teen tobacco users are more likely to use alcohol and illegal drugs than are non-users. Cigarette smokers are also more likely to get into fights, carry weapons, attempt suicide, suffer from mental health problems such as depression, and engage in high-risk sexual behaviors. This doesn’t necessarily mean that tobacco use caused these behaviors, but they’re more common in teens who use tobacco.
March 06, 2018

DIY Face Serum For Acne, Dark Spots And Scars

As someone who has suffered acne, I’m very vigilant about finding good products that can quickly help keep the bumps at bay while reducing the scars they leave behind.

If you’ve ever suffered acne as well, chances are your face also has scars from the acne. Often, I get asked how did I get rid of the terrible dark spots that hunted my face for years.

I’ve talked about several acne recipes on this blog because I understand that a lot of people suffer it too. Yes, several remedies exist that help to reduce this skin problem, but this particular DIY face serum is one of the best! It’s easy to put together, and it doesn’t leave your face with messy felling.

Ingredients Needed & Their Benefits

  • Argan oil – Argan oil regulates the production of sebum, which causes acne, it also helps reduce further breakouts. The vitamin E present in the oil contains anti-oxidants that help remove damaged cells and help new ones grow, therefore fading acne scars.
  • Tea tree essential oil – This oil is known all over the world for its numerous health benefits, including its acne-fighting ability. The best tea tree oil should be 100% pure, unrefined, and chemical-free
  • Lavender essential oil – For a sensitive skin, this oil has a  soothing ability. It fights acne as well as helps to calm the skin as well as to reduce blemishes.
  • Frankincense essential oil – Frankincense has astringent properties. It dries out acne, reduces the appearance of fine lines and wrinkles, and tightens the skin. It helps heal and fade scars and dark spots very fast
  • Lemongrass essential oil – Lemongrass oil mixed with water, can help to remove excess oil from your skin. It has antimicrobial properties help eliminate bacteria trapped in follicles
  • Oregano essential oil – oregano oil helps in treating minor skin problems such as acne, cold sores, rashes and fungal infections when applied topically. It contains natural antiseptic and antibacterial properties.
  • Geranium essential oil – This oil, helps in fading the look of scars and other spots on the skin quickly. It has powerful cicatrisant properties, which aids in increasing blood circulation right below the surface of the skin; helping with the healing of spots caused by acne, cuts or wounds.
  • Carrot seed essential oil – Carrot Seed Oil is wonderful for protecting the skin, and it can be applied as a base layer under sunscreen. It moisturizes while balancing sebum production, which is always helpful for oily or acne-prone skin.
  • Clove essential oil – Clove has antibacterial, anti-inflammatory and antiseptic qualities and thus can help in treating your acne problems in a natural way.

Ingredients You Need:

  • 6 tbsp argan oil
  • 6 drops lavender essential oil
  • 6 drops tea tree essential oil
  • 6 drops frankincense essential oil
  • 6 drops lemongrass essential oil
  • 6 drops oregano essential oil
  • 6 drops geranium essential oil
  • 4 drops carrot seed essential oil
  • 2 drops clove essential oil
  • 4 oz amber glass dropper bottle


  • Fill up a 4 oz amber glass dropper bottle with 6 tbsp of argan oil with the help of a funnel.
  • Gradually add all the drops of essential oils to the bottle.
  • Cap tightly and gently roll the bottle between your hands to gently mix up all the oils.
  • Your Face serum is ready!
  • To use, place 5 drops on one clean palm, then rub both palms together and gently dab them onto your clean face. If you have dry acne prone skin, then dab it onto a damp face to seal moisture!

  • Use twice daily after cleansing your face
February 27, 2018

Morning Skincare Routine – That Every Girl Should Follow

Did you know that your daily morning skincare routine makes you look your best? It is true! Certain morning skin care tips can help you look fresh and beautiful all day long. Many people think that their nightly skincare routine is the most important, but the truth is, how you take care of your skin in the morning is equally important.

Morning Skincare Routine:

Here are some excellent tips to help you create a great morning skincare routine. By following them, you can have glowing skin all day regardless of whether you wear makeup or not! Check out the best morning skincare routine steps in detail.

1. Cleansing:

Washing your face before bed is extremely important as it removes the impurities from your skin. In the morning, use a cleansing treatment to wipe away impurities and built-up oils. It will prep your skin for absorption and leave it feeling fresh and awake.

2. Use A Facial Mist:

Apply a great facial mist to make your skin more hydrated and radiant. This should be done before you apply your daily moisturizer or serum. You get quite a few benefits from facial mists. First, they are a great way to hydrate your skin before applying makeup. They also soothe the skin and help in setting the makeup once you have applied everything.

3. Apply A Serum:

As you know, serums help in keeping your skin youthful as they repair and lift the skin. They also give you a large dose of moisture that your skin needs in order to look glowing and radiant all day. To make sure you follow a morning skincare routine recommended by experts, do not forget your serum.

4. Moisturize:

The next step is to moisturize, and this is a step that you should never forget! Use a light product for the day, especially if you are already using a serum. Experts recommend using a moisturizer that has a built-in sunscreen to protect your skin from the sun’s rays. This saves you time and money as you do not have to use an extra product.

5. Get Rid Of Puffy Eyes:

There are mornings when you wake up with puffy eyes that you do not know how to fix! Do not stress. All you need to do is put your eye cream or gel in the fridge for a couple of minutes before applying it. If you drink tea, you can place the teabags on your eyelids after cooling them to get rid of any puffiness. Tea bags of chamomile tea and black tea are excellent to de-puff your peepers!

6. Hydrate Yourself:

This is the secret to beautiful skin. Drinking water in the morning is known to have loads of benefits, including helping the digestive system, keeping the skin moisturized, and helping you wake up and make you feel energized. Also, your body really needs water since you would not have consumed any for 7 to 8 hours. Remember to drink plenty of water throughout the day to keep your body hydrated and your skin glowing.

How you take care of your skin in the morning is important, as it plays a major role in how your skin looks and feels throughout the day. You need to make sure that you follow a morning skin care routine that suits your skin. There may be times when you do not have the time to go through each step, but do make sure that you cleanse your skin, keep it moisturized and apply sunscreen every morning before you walk out of your house. These are the basics and will do wonders for your skin.

How have you liked this post on the ultimate morning face routine? Let us know by commenting in the box below! We are waiting to hearing from you!
February 24, 2018

Risk Factors for Bone Cancer

A risk factor is anything that affects your chance of getting a disease such as cancer. Different cancers have different risk factors. For example, exposing skin to strong sunlight is a risk factor for skin cancer. Smoking is a risk factor for cancers of the lung, mouth, larynx, bladder, kidney, and several other organs. But having a risk factor, or even several, does not mean that you will get the disease. Most people with bone cancers do not have any apparent risk factors.

Genetic disorders

A very small number of bone cancers (especially osteosarcomas) appear to be hereditary and are caused by defects (mutations) in certain genes. Retinoblastoma is a rare eye cancer in children that can be hereditary. The inherited form of retinoblastoma is caused by a mutation (abnormal copy) of the RB1 gene. Those with this mutation also have an increased risk of developing bone or soft tissue sarcomas. Also, if radiation therapy is used to treat the retinoblastoma, the risk of osteosarcoma in the bones around the eye is even higher.

Finally, there are families with several members who have developed osteosarcoma without inherited changes in any of the known genes. The gene defects that may cause cancers in these families haven’t been discovered yet.


Multiple exostoses (sometimes called multiple osteochondromas) syndrome is an inherited condition that causes many bumps on a person’s bones. These bumps are made mostly of cartilage. They can be painful and deform and/or fracture bones. This disorder is caused by a mutation in any one of the 3 genes EXT1, EXT2, or EXT3. Patients with this condition have an increased risk of chondrosarcoma.

An enchondroma is a benign cartilage tumor that grows into the bone. People who get many of these tumors have a condition called multiple enchondromatosis. They have an increased risk of developing chondrosarcomas.


Chordomas seem to run in some families. The genes responsible have not yet been found, but familial chordoma has been linked to changes on chromosome 7.

Patients with the inherited syndrome tuberous sclerosis, which can be caused by defects (mutations) in either of the genes TSC1 and TSC2, seem to have a high risk of chordomas during childhood.

Paget disease

Paget disease is a benign (non-cancerous) but pre-cancerous condition that affects one or more bones. It results in formation of abnormal bone tissue and occurs mostly in people older than 50. Affected bones are heavy, thick, and brittle. They are weaker than normal bones and more likely to fracture (break). Most of the time, Paget disease is not life threatening. Bone cancer (usually osteosarcoma) develops in about 1% of those with Paget disease, usually when many bones are affected.


Bones that have been exposed to ionizing radiation may also have a higher risk of developing bone cancer. A typical x-ray of a bone is not dangerous, but exposure to large doses of radiation does pose a risk. For example, radiation therapy to treat cancer can cause a new cancer to develop in one of the bones in the treatment area. Being treated when you are younger and/or being treated with higher doses of radiation (usually over 60 Gy) increases your risk of developing bone cancer.

Exposure to radioactive materials such as radium and strontium can also cause bone cancer because these minerals build up in bones.

Non-ionizing radiation, like microwaves, electromagnetic fields from power lines, cellular phones, and household appliances, does not increase bone cancer risk.

Bone marrow transplantation
Osteosarcoma has been reported in a few patients who have undergone bone marrow (stem cell) transplantation.


People have wondered if injury to a bone can cause cancer. This has never been proven. Many people with bone cancer remember having hurt that part of their bone. Most doctors believe that these injuries did not cause the cancer. Instead, the cancer caused people to remember the incident or that the injury drew their attention to that bone, making them notice a problem that had already been present for some time.
February 22, 2018

Using Coconut Oil For Health

Coconut oil is prevalently used in tropical countries such as the Philippines. However, because of its many benefits, it has also recently become popular in the United States. It is commonly used for health, beauty, cooking, skin care and hair care and is considered a “superfood” by many. Coconut oil is extracted from the meat or kernel of mature coconuts. It contains high amounts of saturated fats, most of the medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs), which have been shown to have many health benefits. Most of the fats we consume are long chain fatty acids that must be broken down before they can be absorbed.

Coconut oil is high in short and medium chain fatty acids, which are easily digested and sent right to the liver for energy production. Coconut oil has been used to remedy various illnesses and health concerns for decades. In tropical countries such as India, Philippines, and the majority of Southeast Asia, this oil is a common item in most households.

Here are the health benefits of coconut oil:

1. Digestive Health

Most people who diet and already switched to healthier food choices are still having trouble losing weight. This is because they have a poor digestive system or are suffering from digestive issues. When your digestive system is poor, the nutrients that come from the food that you eat are not fully absorbed by your body, thus creating an imbalance. Coconut is a rich source of medium chain triglycerides (MCTs). These fatty acids are absorbed quickly and easily by the body compared to longer chain fatty acids, which are usually found in vegetable oils. MCTs are not only absorbed by the body better, but they also help other nutrients be absorbed by the body.

Coconut oil contains fatty acids that help reduce inflammation in the digestive system and Victor, Beth. Coconut Oil for Beginners: Your Ultimate Guide For Optimal Health, Wellness, Beauty and helps absorb nutrients from the food that they consume. This proves that coconut oil can help relieve symptoms of IBS, Crohn’s disease, and other digestive issues.

2. Alzheimer’s Disease 

The ketones produced when coconut oil is digested by the body provide fuel to the brain and are believed to be beneficial for those who are suffering from dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. Glucose is the primary source of energy for the brain, but it cannot be metabolized easily. Ketones from coconut oil are believed to be an excellent alternative source of energy to keep the brain healthy and nourished.

3. Improved Blood Sugar Levels 

This wonder oil contains healthy fats that help regulate blood flow. It slows down the digestive process, which results in a steady stream of energy, which in turn lowers down the overall glycemic index of your meal. Adding this tropical oil to your diet can help improve your glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity in the long run. It also helps increase your body’s metabolic rate, which leads to improved insulin function and weight loss.

When insulin does not work properly, the cells in your body do not receive the energy they need, which can lead to an array of diseases. Coconut oil is easily digested and processed by your body without the need for insulin. Therefore, your body receives adequate energy regardless of insulin problems. This is the only oil recommended by doctors that can be consumed by diabetics because it does not cause glucose levels to spike and it even helps regulate glucose levels.

4. Hormonal Imbalance

Hormones are chemical messengers produced in the endocrine glands. They are secreted in the blood, which transports them to the tissues and organs in the body to stimulate their functions. A slight excess or deficiency in hormones can lead to diseases, skin issues, digestive system issues, fatigue and depression among others. Hormones are produced by the body using cholesterol and good fats. When you lack these dietary factors, it can lead to a hormonal imbalance since your body does not have the building blocks to produce them. Coconut oil helps keep your hormones well-balanced and it’s great for your gut health, too. It gives your body all the necessary building blocks to produce hormones. It also helps reduce inflammation, assists in weight loss, and it also has antibacterial and antimicrobial properties.

5. Candida Cure

Coconut oil contains Caprylic acid, which is a potent antifungal that effectively kills Candida yeast. Capric acid and Lauric acid found in this oil also has a similar effect. Together, they make a powerful antifungal treatment. Best of all, Candida yeast is least likely to build up resistance to this oil as opposed to other treatments that lose their potency in time.

6. Improves Energy 

Fats, protein, and carbohydrates are the key nutrients that your body needs to keep it fueled. But you have to choose the right kind of fat to boost your energy.

Coconut oil is packed with medium chain fatty acids (MCFA’s) which are beneficial for energy production since they are digested and metabolized easily by your body and is utilized effectively for energy. Adding this healthy oil in your meal boosts your metabolism and keeps it at a high level for 24 hours. When your metabolism is fast, you burn more calories, and your energy level rises, keeping your whole body energized.
Taking this oil also helps your body absorb other nutrients such as magnesium and vitamin B, which helps in energy production.

7. Eczema and Psoriasis Relief

This tropical oil has soothing properties that naturally heal and moisturize dry, flaky skin caused by eczema or psoriasis. For best results, mix 2 tablespoons coconut oil with 1 tablespoon Shea butter and 10 drops Geranium essential oil. Massage gently on your skin and apply as needed.

8. Potential Cure for HIV/AIDS 

The anti-viral effect of coconut oil beneficially reduces the viral load in HIV patients. According to a study conducted in the University of the Philippines, monolaurin is released when coconut oil is metabolized in the body. Monolaurin is an antiviral agent and an antibiotic. The study showed that the antiviral action is not only with the monoglyceride of Lauric acid but with the oil itself. This indicates the high anti-pathogenic activity of this oil.

9. Cancer Prevention 

Pure coconut oil is rich in Lauric acid, which is a compound that is also found in human breast milk. Lauric acid is an MCFA that is synthesized by your body into monolaurin. MCFAs antimicrobial properties support your immune system and are shown to prevent and reduce the growth of cancer cells.

10. Weight Loss 

Since this oil contains more MCFAs, which are easily burned by your body, it does not convert into stored fats. That being said, this oil is quickly used by your body as energy, which boosts your metabolism, making it easier to burn fats. Therefore, you start to lose weight and become leaner.

Also, coconut oil speeds up your metabolism for up to 24 hours. It not only burns its calories through thermogenesis, but it also burns calories from other food that you consume at a faster rate.

Just make sure to stay away from refined or hydrogenated coconut oils. Stick to pure, virgin coconut oil only as this is not chemically altered and contains all the healthy goodness the oil has to offer.

You can incorporate this oil into your diet by adding it to your smoothies or replacing your cooking oil with it. You can also use it for baking instead of butter or vegetable shortening. As an added benefit, it makes you feel full longer, so you do not crave for food while you are on a diet.

February 22, 2018

Homemade All Natural, Healing & Moisturizing Eczema Body Wash

Eczema is a term for describing different types of skin conditions that result in inflammation of the skin. Many people suffer from eczema. Eczema is also known by its more medical term Atopic Dermatitis, which means ‘inflamed skin.’ It is not a contagious condition. It can also be easily triggered by environmental factors like smoke and pollen.

This skin condition is quite common for children, but adults can get it too. About 20% of children all over the world suffer from eczema. People with eczema have sensitive skin. And the treatment focuses on healing damaged skin and alleviating symptoms.

It is often so difficult trying to find a soap or lotion that doesn’t irritate sensitive skin. This homemade eczema body wash is surprisingly amazing for allergies and skin reactions.

I encourage on this blog to embrace all things natural. Yes. This post will teach you just how easy to make your own homemade natural body wash for eczema.

Benefit Of Each Ingredient

  • Liquid castile soap – Liquid Castile Soap is a versatile natural soap that can be used in beauty recipes like shampoo and body wash and in cleaning and baby care It is good for sensitive skin types including eczema affected skin.
  • Coconut oil – This oil is wonderfully moisturizing and soothing to eczema. It has antibacterial, anti-fungal, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties that can help soothe your skin when it’s itchy. It can also help reduce the inflammation.
  • Goat Milk – Goat milk is wonderful for people with dry or sensitive skin or conditions such as eczema and psoriasis
  • Raw honey – Keep the skin moist which helps to reduce or remove the incidence of eczema flare-ups.
  • Vitamin E oil – This vitamin is a strong antioxidant. It also lubricates the skin, speeds up the rate at which cells renew and regenerate. Vitamin E oil is necessary for a soft, smooth and youthful skin.
  • Lavender oil – Using lavender oil for eczema is very common, as lavender oil is a traditional treatment for many skin conditions. Did I mention that it will also give this body wash an incredible uplifting scent?
  • Black Cumin Seed oil – Black cumin seed oil can help with a variety of skin ailments including, acne, psoriasis, and eczema
  • Tea tree oil – Tea tree oil may help relieve itchiness and inflammation associated with eczema. The oil has been proven in medical studies to benefit acne, eczema, psoriasis, warts, fungus and skin cancer.

What you Need

  • 2/3 cup liquid castile soap
  • ¼ cup coconut oil 
  • ¼ goat milk
  • ¼ cup raw honey 
  • 2 tsp vitamin E oil
  • 5 drops lavender oil 
  • 10 drops black cumin seed oil
  • 10 drops tea tree oil 
  • Measuring cup
  • Flip top bottle 
  • Pot of hot water
  • Whisk for mixing 


  • Add the coconut oil to the measuring cup and gently melt it down. You can do this by using the cup to do a double boiler.
  • Once melted, add the black cumin seed oil, raw honey, goat milk, and vitamin E oil. Whisk well until mixed together.
  • Add the liquid castile soap and essential oils and whisk again.
  • Now pour the mixture carefully into your flip top bottle.
  • That’s all! Your Homemade eczema body wash is ready!
  • Store in a cool dry place and make sure not to get any water into it. 

    Share your experience below. 
February 21, 2018

What Is Bone Cancer?

Bone cancer starts in the bone. Cancer starts when cells in the body begin to grow out of control. Cells in nearly any part of the body can become cancer, and can spread to other areas of the body. To learn more about how cancers start and spread, see What Is Cancer?

Normal bone tissue

To understand bone cancer, it helps to understand a little about normal bone tissue.

Bone is the supporting framework of your body. Most bones are hollow. The outer part of bones is a network of fibrous tissue called matrix onto which calcium salts are laid down.

Illustration showing structure of bone including cartilage, periosteum, spongy bone, medullary cavity. Also shows a cross section of bone showing blood vessel, periosteum, compact bone, spongy bone, edosteum, medullary cavity.
The hard outer layer of bones is made of compact (cortical) bone, which covers the lighter spongy (trabecular) bone inside. The outside of the bone is covered with a layer of fibrous tissue called periosteum. Some bones are hollow and have a space called the medullary cavity which contains the soft tissue called bone marrow (discussed below). The tissue lining the medullary cavity is called endosteum. At each end of the bone is a zone of a softer form of bone-like tissue called cartilage.

Cartilage is softer than bone but more firm than most tissues. It is made of a fibrous tissue matrix mixed with a gel-like substance that does not contain much calcium.

Most bones start out as cartilage. The body then lays calcium down onto the cartilage to form bone. After the bone is formed, some cartilage may remain at the ends to act as a cushion between bones. This cartilage, along with ligaments and some other tissues connect bones to form a joint. In adults, cartilage is mainly found at the end of some bones as part of a joint. It is also seen at the place in the chest where the ribs meet the sternum (breastbone) and in parts of the face. The trachea (windpipe), larynx (voice box), and the outer part of the ear are other structures that contain cartilage.

Bone itself is very hard and strong. Some bone is able to support as much as 12,000 pounds per square inch. It takes as much as 1,200 to 1,800 pounds of pressure to break the femur (thigh bone). The bone itself contains 2 kinds of cells. The osteoblast is the cell that lays down new bone, and the osteoclast is the cell that dissolves old bone. Bone often looks as if it doesn’t change much, but the truth is that it is very active. Throughout our bodies, new bone is always forming while old bone is dissolving.

In some bones the marrow is only fatty tissue. The marrow in other bones is a mixture of fat cells and blood-forming cells. The blood-forming cells produce red blood cells, white blood cells, and blood platelets. Other cells in the marrow include plasma cells, fibroblasts, and reticuloendothelial cells.

Cells from any of these tissues can develop into a cancer.

Types of bone tumors

Most of the time when someone with cancer is told they have cancer in the bones, the doctor is talking about a cancer that has spread to the bones from somewhere else. This is called metastatic cancer. It can be seen in many different types of advanced cancer, like breast cancer, prostate cancer, and lung cancer. When these cancers in the bone are looked at under a microscope, they look like the tissue they came from. For example, if someone has lung cancer that has spread to bone, the cells of the cancer in the bone still look and act like lung cancer cells. They do not look or act like bone cancer cells, even though they are in the bones. Since these cancer cells still act like lung cancer cells, they still need to be treated with drugs that are used for lung cancer.

For more information about metastatic bone cancer, please see Bone Metastasis, as well as information on the specific cancer ( Breast Cancer, Lung Cancer, Prostate Cancer, etc.).

Other kinds of cancers that are sometimes called “bone cancers” start in the blood forming cells of the bone marrow − not in the bone itself. The most common cancer that starts in the bone marrow and causes bone tumors is called multiple myeloma. Another cancer that starts in the bone marrow is leukemia, but it is generally considered a blood cancer rather than a bone cancer. Sometimes lymphomas, which more often start in lymph nodes, can start in bone marrow. Multiple myeloma, lymphoma, and leukemia are not discussed in this document. For more information on these cancers, refer to the individual document for each.

A primary bone tumor starts in the bone itself. True (or primary) bone cancers are called sarcomas. Sarcomas are cancers that start in bone, muscle, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, fat tissue, as well as some other tissues. They can develop anywhere in the body.

There are several different types of bone tumors. Their names are based on the area of bone or surrounding tissue that is affected and the kind of cells forming the tumor. Some primary bone tumors are benign (not cancerous), and others are malignant (cancerous). Most bone cancers are sarcomas.

Benign bone tumors

Benign tumors do not spread to other tissues and organs and so are not usually life threatening. They are generally cured by surgery. Types of benign bone tumors include:

  • Osteoid osteoma 
  • Osteoblastoma 
  • Osteochondroma
  • Enchondroma
  • Chondromyxoid fibroma.

These benign tumors are not discussed further here. This information is only about bone cancers.

Malignant bone tumors

Osteosarcoma: Osteosarcoma (also called osteogenic sarcoma) is the most common primary bone cancer. This cancer starts in the bone cells. It most often occurs in young people between the ages of 10 and 30, but about 10% of osteosarcoma cases develop in people in their 60s and 70s. It is rare in middle-aged people, and is more common in males than females. These tumors develop most often in bones of the arms, legs, or pelvis. This cancer is not discussed in detail in this document, but is covered in Osteosarcoma.

Chondrosarcoma: Chondrosarcoma is a cancer of cartilage cells. It is the second most common primary bone cancer. This cancer is rare in people younger than 20. After age 20, the risk of getting a chondrosarcoma goes up until about age 75. Women get this cancer as often as men.

Chondrosarcomas can develop anywhere there is cartilage. Most develop in bones such as the pelvis, leg bone or arm bone. Occasionally, chondrosarcoma will develop in the trachea, larynx, and chest wall. Other sites are the scapula (shoulder blade), ribs, or skull.

Benign (non-cancerous) tumors of cartilage are more common than malignant ones. These are called enchondromas. Another type of benign tumor that has cartilage is a bony projection capped by cartilage called an osteochondroma. These benign tumors rarely turn into cancer. There is a slightly higher chance of cancer developing in people who have many of these tumors, but this is still not common.

Chondrosarcomas are classified by grade, which measures how fast they grow. The grade is assigned by the pathologist (a doctor specially trained to examine and diagnose tissue samples under a microscope). The lower the grade, the slower the cancer grows. When a cancer is slow growing, the chance that it will spread is lower and so the outlook is better. Most chondrosarcomas are either low grade (grade I) or intermediate grade (grade II). High-grade (grade III) chondrosarcomas, which are the most likely to spread, are less common.

Some chondrosarcomas have distinctive features under a microscope. These variants of chondrosarcoma can have a different prognosis (outlook) than usual chondrosarcomas.

  • Dedifferentiated chondrosarcomas start out as typical chondrosarcomas but then some parts of the tumor change into cells like those of a high-grade sarcoma (such as high grade forms of malignant fibrous histiocytoma, osteosarcoma, or fibrosarcoma). This variant of chondrosarcoma tends to occur in older patients and is more aggressive than usual chondrosarcomas.
  • Clear cell chondrosarcomas are rare and grow slowly. They rarely spread to other parts of the body unless they have already come back several times in the original location.
  • Mesenchymal chondrosarcomas can grow rapidly, but like Ewing tumor, are sensitive to treatment with radiation and chemotherapy.

Ewing tumor: Ewing tumor is the third most common primary bone cancer, and the second most common in children, adolescents, and young adults. This cancer (also called Ewing sarcoma) is named after the doctor who first described it in 1921, Dr. James Ewing. Most Ewing tumors develop in bones, but they can start in other tissues and organs. The most common sites for this cancer are the pelvis, the chest wall (such as the ribs or shoulder blades), and the long bones of the legs or arms. This cancer is most common in children and teenagers and is rare in adults older than 30. Ewing tumors occur most often in white people and are very rare among African Americans and Asian Americans. More detailed information about this cancer can be found in our document called Ewing Family of Tumors.

Malignant fibrous histiocytoma: Malignant fibrous histiocytoma (MFH) more often starts in soft tissue (connective tissues such as ligaments, tendons, fat, and muscle) than in bones. This cancer is also known as pleomorphic undifferentiated sarcoma, especially when it starts in soft tissues. When MFH occurs in bones, it usually affects the legs (often around the knees) or arms. This cancer most often occurs in elderly and middle-aged adults and is rare among children. MFH mostly tends to grow locally, but it can spread to distant sites, like the lungs.

Fibrosarcoma: This is another type of cancer that develops more often in soft tissues than it does in bones. Fibrosarcoma usually occurs in elderly and middle-aged adults. Bones in the legs, arms, and jaw are most often affected.

Giant cell tumor of bone: This type of primary bone tumor has benign and malignant forms. The benign (non-cancerous) form is most common. Giant cell bone tumors typically affect the leg (usually near the knees) or arm bones of young and middle-aged adults. They don’t often spread to distant sites, but tend to come back where they started after surgery (this is called local recurrence). This can happen several times. With each recurrence, the tumor becomes more likely to spread to other parts of the body. Rarely, a malignant giant cell bone tumor spreads to other parts of the body without first recurring locally.

Chordoma: This primary tumor of bone usually occurs in the base of the skull and bones of the spine. It develops most often in adults older than 30, and is about twice as common in men as in women. Chordomas tend to grow slowly and often do not spread to other parts of the body, but they often come back in the same area if they are not removed completely. The lymph nodes, the lungs, and the liver are the most common areas for secondary tumor spread.

Other cancers that develop in bonesNon-Hodgkin lymphomas

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma generally develops in lymph nodes but sometimes starts in the bone. Primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the bone is often a widespread disease because multiple sites in the body are usually involved. The outlook is similar to other non-Hodgkin lymphomas of the same subtype and stage. Primary lymphoma of the bone is given the same treatment as lymphomas that start in lymph nodes − it is not treated like a primary bone sarcoma. For more information see Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma.

Multiple myelomas

Multiple myeloma almost always develops in bones, but doctors do not consider it a primary bone cancer because it develops from the plasma cells of the bone marrow (the soft inner part of some bones). Although it causes bone destruction, it is no more a bone cancer than is leukemia. It is treated as a widespread disease. At times, myeloma can be first found as a single tumor (called a plasmacytoma) in a single bone, but most of the time it will spread to the marrow of other bones. For more information see Multiple Myeloma.
February 20, 2018

Quick Review of the Alkaline Diet for Weight Loss

t's the ultimate fitness mantra of many celebs. People swear by its benefits. So, what's the hype all about? The alkaline diet, also known as the acid ash diet, is known for being a natural diet. It can promote weight loss, and some claim the diet can prevent even cancer. Does it work? Below are some of the aspects you need to know.

The Dos and Don'ts:

Let's start by saying that the alkaline diet is completely natural, and therefore, it is surely better than some of the fad diets that we all know about. If you are on this diet, your meals will be all about fruits, veggies and soy products. Some nuts, seeds and lentils are allowed, while you have to skip most of the common grains, dairy products, eggs and poultry. Red meat is also banned on the list. Thankfully, there are a good number of credible cookbooks that may come handy. Also, most books on the diet suggest to avoid alcohol and caffeine. This is also a gluten-free diet, so wheat is not allowed, but keep an eye on the labels because a lot of packaged foods do have gluten. You can also include vitamin enhanced water or alkaline water in your plan.

Will You Lose Weight?

Yes, you will lose weight in a healthy way with the alkaline diet, simply because the diet is clean and free of processed foods, carbohydrates, and gluten. However, you need to understand the process of weight loss is not because of the reason claimed. Alkaline diet says that eating foods and drinking beverages can change the pH score of your body, which isn't true. Human blood is slightly alkaline, while the stomach is high acidic. This is because the acids in the stomach help in digesting food. However, nothing you eat can affect your blood pH considerably. If weight loss is your only motto, the alkaline diet is a good place to start, but do not expected miracles.

Other Points to Note:

A lot of critics have talked about the lack of focus on exercise. In fact, the alkaline diet doesn't say anything about exercise at all. For comprehensive and sustainable weight loss and other health benefits, an active lifestyle is equally important. Researchers are also not sure of the other long list of other claims made, although limited studies have shown some positive results with regards to eating low-acid producing foods and beverages. It is also important to understand that this is not some sort of miracle diet. It would require considerable effort, and most of the foods that you are otherwise used to must be avoided completely. If you are someone who has been surviving on hamburgers, bacon and English breakfast, you need to think for a while before considering the diet. However, you can always try one of the handbooks or cookbooks to learn more about cooking alkaline meals at home, which can save money.

Check online now to find more on alkaline diet, and if you have any chronic health condition, consult your physician first.

February 17, 2018

Does UV radiation cause cancer?

Yes. In fact, most skin cancers are a direct result of exposure to the UV rays in sunlight. Both basal cell and squamous cell cancers (the most common types of skin cancer) tend to be found on sun-exposed parts of the body, and their occurrence is typically related to lifetime sun exposure. The risk of  melanoma, a more serious but less common type of skin cancer, is also related to sun exposure, although perhaps not as strongly. Skin cancer has also been linked to exposure to some artificial sources of UV rays.

Studies in people

Sun exposure

Basal and squamous cell skin cancer: Many observational studies have found that basal and squamous cell skin cancers are linked to certain behaviors that put people in the sun, as well as a number of markers of sun exposure, such as:

  • Spending time in the sun for recreation (including going to the beach)
  • Spending a lot of time in the sun in a swimsuit
  • Living in an area with a high amount of sun
  • Having had serious sunburns in the past (with more sunburns linked to a higher risk)
  • Having signs of sun damage to the skin, such as liver spots, actinic keratoses (rough skin patches that can be precancerous), and solar elastosis (thickened, dry, wrinkled skin caused by sun exposure) on the neck

Melanoma: Observational studies have also found links between certain behaviors and markers of sun exposure and melanoma of the skin, including:

  • Activities that lead to “intermittent sun exposure,” like sunbathing, water sports, and taking vacations in sunny places
  • Previous sunburns
  • Signs of sun damage to the skin, such as liver spots, actinic keratoses, and solar elastosis

Other cancers: Because UV radiation does not penetrate deeply into the body, it would not be expected to cause cancer in internal organs, and most research has not found such links. However, some studies have shown possible links to some other cancers, including:

  • Merkel cell carcinoma (a less common type of skin cancer)
  • Cancer of the lip
  • Some types of eye cancer, such as  melanoma of the eye and squamous cell carcinoma of the conjunctiva

Artificial sources of UV rays

Indoor tanning: Studies have found that people who use tanning beds (or booths) have a higher risk of skin cancer, including melanoma and squamous and basal cell skin cancers. The risk of melanoma is higher if the person started indoor tanning before age 30 or 35, and the risk of basal and squamous cell skin cancer is higher if indoor tanning started before age 20 or 25.

Welding and metal work: Some studies have suggested that welders and sheet metal workers might have a higher risk of melanoma of the eye.

Phototherapy: People exposed to UVA as a treatment for skin conditions such as psoriasis (as a part of PUVA therapy) have an increased risk of squamous cell skin cancers.

Treatment of skin conditions with UVB alone (not combined with PUVA) has not been linked to an increased risk of cancer.

Studies in the lab

Studies of cells

Studies of cells in lab dishes and test tubes have shown that sunlight and simulated sunlight (for example, from xenon or xenon-mercury arc lamps) can cause DNA damage (mutations).

Studies in animals

Exposure of mice, rats, and some other lab animals to sunlight and artificial sources of UV rays has been shown to lead to skin cancers. Most of these cancers have been squamous cell carcinomas. Some exposed animals have also developed cancers of the eye (affecting the cornea and conjunctiva).

No type of UV radiation has been shown to be safe – cancers have developed after exposure to UVA (alone), UVB (alone), and UVC (alone).

What expert agencies say

Several national and international agencies study different substances in the environment to determine if they can cause cancer. (A substance that causes cancer or helps cancer grow is called a carcinogen.) The American Cancer Society looks to these organizations to evaluate the risks based on evidence from laboratory, animal, and human research studies.

Based on animal and human evidence like the examples above, several expert agencies have evaluated the cancer-causing nature of UV radiation.

The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) is part of the World Health Organization (WHO). Its major goal is to identify causes of cancer. Based on the data available, IARC classifies UV radiation as “carcinogenic to humans.”

The National Toxicology Program (NTP) is formed from parts of several different US government agencies, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The NTP has classified UV radiation as “known to be a human carcinogen.”

What about tanning beds?

Some people think that getting UV rays from tanning beds is a safe way to get a tan, but this isn’t true.

IARC classifies the use of UV-emitting tanning devices as “carcinogenic to humans.” This includes sunlamps and sunbeds (tanning beds).

The NTP has stated that exposure to sunlamps or sunbeds is “known to be a human carcinogen.”

The US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), which now refers to all UV lamps used for tanning as “sunlamps,” requires them to carry a label that states, “Attention: This sunlamp product should not be used on persons under the age of 18 years.” The FDA also requires that user instructions and sales materials directed at consumers (including catalogs, specification sheets, descriptive brochures, and webpages) carry the following statements:

  • Contraindication: This product is contraindicated for use on persons under the age of 18 years.
  • Contraindication: This product must not be used if skin lesions or open wounds are present.
  • Warning: This product should not be used on individuals who have had skin cancer or have a family history of skin cancer.
  • Warning: Persons repeatedly exposed to UV radiation should be regularly evaluated for skin cancer.